Year


13 / 07 / 2015



                      《Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2015》


Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2015 is a compilation of statistical data from various sources and a survey by the Youth Research Centre of the HKFYG. There are five main chapters in the book. They are “Introduction of the main findings about youth”, “Youth research and data analysis”, “Indicators of Youth Values”, “International Youth Comparison” and “Conclusion and Suggestion”.  

There are two main survey reports included in Trends 2015. For “Indicators of Youth Values” (Chapter 3), it is the twelfth in a series that has been published by the HKFYG Youth Research Centre since 1997. Statistical data including the comparison throughout the years and thus the changes trends of youth values in various years has been presented. 

For “International Youth Comparison” (Chapter 4), the questionnaire from Japan Government has been used as reference for the survey conducted among aged 13-29 youth in Hong Kong. The result has been made comparison with 7 other countries, namely Japan, South Korea, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, France and Sweden, so as to study the characteristics of young people from different places.

Overall, the statistics and figures covered in the book present a general picture on various topics related to young people nowadays. Analysis and recommendations are put forward for reference.

10 / 07 / 2013



                      Youth Trends In Hong Kong 2013

 

 

Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2013 is a compilation of statistical data and survey findings by HKFYG’s Youth Research Centre. Data is organized in 7 sections: (1) population and family; (2) education; (3) financial independence; (4) information and communication technology; (5) participation and engagement; (6) physical and mental health and (7) abnormal or deviant behaviour. Each section is followed by conclusions based on the data reported.  


The book also has “Indicators of Youth Values”, the eleventh since the series began in 1997. These snapshots of youth in Hong Kong include observations on their changed values over the intervening years. A concluding chapter follows, with recommendations for youth workers, educators and the government officials.

 

 

01 / 01 / 2011

Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2011 is a compilation and analysis of statistical data and research findings about Hong Kong young people. Data is organized according to seven areas of concern: (1) population and family; (2) education; (3) economically independent ability; (4) information and communication technology; (5) social participation; (6) physical and mental health; (7) behavioral health. There is a review of the ways in which population, education, employment and social participation are affected by the changing social and economic environment and of problems such as Internet safety, attempted suicide, drug abuse and youth criminality.

In addition, the book includes a survey of “Indicators of Youth Values”, the tenth in the survey series which has been conducted by the Youth Research Centre since 1997. It attempts to reveal the trends in Hong Kong young people’s values. The concluding chapter is a discussion which suggests nine directions for policy change which youth workers and the authorities concerned are urged to consider.

01 / 01 / 2006

Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2004-2006 is a compilation and analysis of statistical data and research findings about Hong Kong young people. Data is organized according to six areas of concern: (1) population and family; (2) education and potential development; (3) ability to be economically independent; (4) social participation; (5) physical and mental health; (6) behavioral health. There is a review of the ways in which education, employment and social participation are affected by the changing social and economic environment and of problems such as attempted suicide, drug abuse and youth criminality.

In addition, the book features findings of two youth surveys. The first is a survey of “Indicators of Youth Values” which has been conducted by the Youth Research Centre since 1997. It attempts to reveal the trends in Hong Kong young people’s values. The second is an “International Youth Survey” which compares the characteristics and attitudes of Hong Kong youth with those of youth in Japan, Korea, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The concluding chapter is a discussion which suggests ten directions for policy change which youth workers and the authorities concerned are urged to consider.

01 / 01 / 2003

"Ten Significant Trends Among Youth"

The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups released the latest findings on a survey entitled, "Indicators of Youth Values on 27 December 2004. The Federation raised some observations based on this and the other five similar surveys on “Indicators of Youth Values” since 1997. Results from the surveys and significant trends from the following seven aspects were compiled and observed: (1) values on the family; (2) values on sex; (3) education and individual ability; (4) employment; (5) politics; (6) social responsibility and social capital; and (7) environmental protection.

The survey on the "Indicators of Youth Values" was conducted from 16 to 30 December 2003. 1,018 young people, aged between 15 and 39, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The response rate was 29.3% and the standard error was below ±1.6% percent.

Details of the survey results and discussions as well as the latest trends on youth development will be published in the forthcoming Youths Trends in Hong Kong 2003 .

01 / 01 / 2002

"Ten Significant Trends Among Youth"

The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups released the latest findings on a survey entitled, “Youth Life Culture” on 9 November 2003. Results showed that Hong Kong young people favoured popular culture and loved life culture with local characteristics. However, young people from lower-income families had lower opportunity to know about other kinds of culture and about new technology.

Respondents from the higher-income family group (with family income >= HK$20,000) were more likely to take part in higher-cost activities and activities outside the home, such as going to cinema and listening to concerts or operas. Respondents from the lower-income family group (with family income < HK$20,000) were more likely to enjoy their leisure activities at home, such as watching TV and playing on-line games. Respondents from the latter group were less likely to possess digital technological products such as mobile phones and digital cameras. Besides, they had visited fewer places than the former group.

Other major findings of this survey include:

  • It was rare that young people attend refined culture programs. They usually spent most of their leisure watching TV. 
  • The mainstream culture of Hong Kong young people contained local characteristics, while some cultural elements from Japan and the western world were also seen in different aspects of the young lives. Korean culture had not make a significant influence to local culture yet. 
  • Young people usually used popular commodities and services. They spent seriously under the economic downturn. 

The survey on the " Youth Life Culture" was conducted from 31 March to 3 April 2003. 543 young people, aged between 15 and 24, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The response rate was 48.2% and the standard error was below ±2.2% percent.

At the time time, the Federation also released the latest findings on the survey, "Indicators of Youth Values", which was the fifth of the same series. Results from the five surveys and significant trends from the following eight aspects were compiled and observed: (1) values on the family; (2) values on sex; (3) education and individual ability; (4) politics, society and government; (5) rule of law; (6) employment; (7) media; and (8) social responsibility.

This survey on the "Indicators of Youth Values" was conducted from 5 to 14 June 2002. 1,099 young people, aged between 15 and 39, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The response rate was 33.5% and the standard error was below ±1.6% percent.

Details of the above two survey results and discussions, as well as the latest trends on youth development will be published in the forthcoming Youths Trends in Hong Kong 2002

01 / 01 / 2001

"Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2001" 


The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups released the latest findings on a survey entitled, "Indicators of Youth Values" on 30 December 2001, which also raised four significant issues regarding youth. The Federation has been conducting similar surveys on "Indicators of Youth Values" annually since 1997. The following results from four surveys and significant trends from eight aspects were compiled and observed as follows:

1. Education

Youth were positive towards the value of school education in general. The percentage of those who were satisfied with their English proficiency, however, fell to a new low. The survey showed that most respondents believed an education gleaned from school was useful (86.5%) and expressed that they liked going to school (77.8%). The responses were maintained at a high standard throughout the four surveys. However, in the latest survey, there was a decline in terms of the usefulness of schooling (1997: 92.1%; 2001: 86.5%). 78.1% of the respondents were satisfied with their Chinese proficiency, illustrating an upward trend. Yet, less than a half of them were satisfied with their proficiency in English over three years and the percentage fell to a new low of 36.1% in the latest survey.

2. Employment

Youth had little confidence in employment prospects, while the percentage of those who valued work satisfaction more than monetary rewards continued to decrease. The confidence in employment prospects among youth saw a sharp decrease. Only 31.0% of respondents believed that it would not be difficult to find a job, while 67.2% of the youth polled had confidence in their own skills to make a living. Both these figures were low when compared to past surveys. On the other hand, 55.5% of respondents believed that starting their own businesses would be better than being employed by someone else, while 63.0% believed that work satisfaction was more important than monetary rewards. Both these figures were lower than those of 2000.

3. Values on Sex

The findings from the four surveys showed that although the attitude of youth towards sex was basically liberal, there was an emphasis on loyalty to their partners. The survey continued to understand the values of youth regarding sex by asking respondents for their views on pre-marital sex, abortion and sex partners. The findings, from the four surveys, showed that the attitude of youth towards sex was basically liberal – only 35% to 45% of respondents considered pre-marital sexual relations wrong, with about half of the respondents finding abortions to be acceptable, and 15% to 20% believing that having more than one sexual partner at a time was acceptable. Figures also showed that the percentages had decreased amongst those considered pre-marital sexual relations wrong (1997: 45.2%; 2001: 35.6%). The percentage of respondents who believed that having more than one sexual partner at a time was acceptable, also decreased (1998: 23.4%; 2001: 16.0%).

4. Values on the Family

Youth placed strong value on families and also placed great emphasis on the traditional value of avoiding divorce and providing financial support for ones parents. Figures continued to show that youth placed a strong value on families, with 85% or more of respondents, in all four surveys, claiming that families were important, having siblings was good and believing that they would get married and have children of their own. There was also a rise in the number of those who wished for family stability and an increase in the percentage of respondents who believed that divorce was not appropriate. (1998: 25.8%; 2001: 36.8%). Those who believed that providing financial support for parents was an outdated notion, also decreased (1997: 27.5%; 2001: 21.9%).

5. Development of Hong Kong and China

The percentage of youth who were optimistic about the development of China rose to a new high, while the percentage of those who were optimistic about Hong Kong's development slumped to a new low. The past three surveys showed that more respondents were optimistic about the development of China than compared to those who were optimistic about the development on Hong Kong. In the latest survey, 77.7% of respondents were optimistic about the development of China in the next year, which was a new high. On the contrary, only 44.4% were optimistic about the development on Hong Kong in the next year, which was a new low. During the period of the last survey, China had recently joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) and was maintaining high economic growth. Comparatively, Hong Kong was facing the challenge of economic restructuring and a high unemployment rate. It is believed that these realities affected the assessment of the respondents.

6. Rating of the Hong Kong SAR Government

Although more than half of the youth polled believed that the Hong Kong SAR Government was honest and trustful, the percentage continued to decrease. More than half of the youth polled in past surveys believed that the Hong Kong SAR Government was honest and trustful, and that the opinions of the citizens were able to affect Government policies. However the percentage of these positive assessments have continued to decrease over the past three years. The percentage of respondents who believed that the SAR Government was honest and trustful decreased by 8.6% (1998: 70.5%; 2001: 61.9%) and 7.8% (1998: 59.2%; 2001: 51.4%) respectively, while those who believed that the opinions of the citizens were able to affect Government policies decreased by 8.2% (1998: 69.5%; 2001: 61.3%). It appeared that youth continually give the SAR Government a low rating on its performance. Only 30% to 37% of respondents were satisfied with the overall performance of the SAR Government.

7. Sense of Belonging

More than 95% of youth identified themselves as Chinese, while more than 80% had a sense of belonging to Hong Kong. The percentage of respondents who identified themselves as Chinese remained high. The percentage went up to 97.1% in the latest survey. Those who had a sense of belonging to Hong Kong also remained at a high percentage, with more than 80% in the past four surveys. In addition, those wishing to emigrate remained at about 30%.

8. Sense of Abiding by the Law

Youth had strong sense of abiding by the law. They also thought that the problem of corruption was becoming more serious. Youth polled agreed with the importance of abiding by the law, with the percentage remaining at 95% or above and showing a steady increase. There was a decrease in the number of youth who claimed that they would not abide by laws that appeared unreasonable (1998: 50.3%; 2001: 37.8%). 43.6% of respondents thought that the problem of corruption in Hong Kong was becoming more serious, which was higher than the previous year. There was also an increase in the percentage, as compared to the previous year, of respondents who believed that corruption was unavoidable in a commercial society. But this was much lower than when compared to four years ago (1997: 67.0%; 2001: 55.1%).

The Survey on the "Indicators of Youth Values" was conducted from 11 to 18 June 2001. 1,128 young people, aged between 15 and 39, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The response rate was 47.3% and the standard error was below ±1.5% per cent.

In compiling research conducted, not only by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, but also by the Government, Research Agencies and Non-Governmental Organizations, the following four issues caught the attention.

(I) Youth unemployment was still serious and the problem would worsen in the midst of economic restructuring. Youth with low educational standards would face many more problems when seeking employment.

According to the statistical data, the Federation claimed that there were three kinds of youth faced with the crisis of joblessness, who might eventually end up as long-term unemployed: (1) 15-19 year-old unemployed youth: The unemployment rate for 15 to19 year-old youth has been consistently high since 1998. The rate had even climbed to 25.1% in the third quarter of 2001. This group was made up of school-leavers who usually had not attained matriculation standards and did not have enough working experience. They were thus the first to be squeezed out from the highly competitive labour market and could fall into long-term unemployment since they did not possess the necessary criteria to re-enter the labour market. (2) Youth who were at mid-level positions: The percentage of youth occupying middle-level positions such as clerks – which is the most commonly filled position by youth – craftsman and plant and machine operators and assemblers has been decreasing in the past ten years. Along with the computerization of work processes, the size-reduction trend of enterprises and the moving of jobs onto Mainland China, the problem of unemployment definitely extends to this group of employed youth. (3) Youth who were occupying elementary occupations (such as domestic helpers and doorkeepers): The percentage of the labour force occupying elementary occupations has been on the rise in the past ten years, but the demand has recently been decreasing, according to a report released by the Education and Manpower Bureau. Supply has exceeded demand forcing this group to face the unemployment crisis.

According to the analysis of the Federation, the problems of these three groups of youth have developed as a result of economic restructuring. Therefore, the principle of increasing employability should be introduced in order to solve their problems. Such methods include: increasing educational standards so as to equip youth with the ability to compete; providing chances for life-long learning so that school-leavers can advance their standards accordingly and by providing vocational training so as to enhance their working skills.

(II) Although there are more and more ways to increase the educational standards of youth, different programmes do not often recognize each other's educational credentials, resulting in the problem of transition between different programmes. High tuition fees also prevent youth from continuing with their education.

There were an increasing number of educational programmes for which Form Five and Form Seven school-leavers could apply, such as Project Springboard, the Associate Degree programmes and different kinds of vocational training certificates, in coordination with the Government's policy on Continuing Education. The Federation agreed with this direction, but emphasized that it should be carried out with the following conditions: (1) That an overall accreditation and recognition system be established so that programmes other than university undergraduate programmes can be recognized. (2) Establish a bridging or transition system so that graduates of different continuing education programmes may gain access to higher education by the acculmulation of educational credentials. Youth who are already working can also receive continuing education. (3) Provide financially strapped youth with assistance. The tuition fee of Project Springboard is $30,000 while that of the Associate Degree programmes range from $30,000 to $40,000, which are unaffordable to large numbers of potential students. The Government should provide suitable financial assistance to those students in need.

(III) There are increasing problems concerning the mental health of adolescents, which must be addressed as soon as possible.

Hospital Authority figures show that there were 1,355, 1,678 and 2,321 adolescents under 15 receiving mental health treatment in 1998/99, 1999/00 and 2000/01 respectively, contributing to an upward trend. The World Health Organization has also warned that depression, which is an emotional illness, will become the second most prevalent killer in the world. In a report released by the National Institute of Mental Health of the United States in October 2000, 2.5% of children and 8.3% of adolescents suff from depression. The Institute also pointed out that various longitudinal research studies found that the symptoms of depression could be extended to adulthood.

Adolescents suffering from depression were usually diagnosed as being at a stage in their lives of emotional instability and therefore ignored. Those who were anxious, irascible, ignored their studies, challenged authorities or abused drugs were generally considered to be having behavioural problems. This is not something to be taken lightly, as serious depression has, in many instances, led to suicide or attempted suicide. The School Social Work Team of the Federation had distinguished 30 cases with symptoms of depression in the year 2000/01. It called on parents, teachers and youth workers to be aware of the relevant diseases and provide assistance to those who were suffering. Suitable preventative action and education should also be provided to avoid worsening the problem.

(IV) A most worrying feature of youth behaviour is the trend of youth under 21 abusing psychotropic drugs. Drug abuse has already become part of the leisure activity of young people, and the venue of abusing has also changed, from large parties to smaller sites.

As quoted by the Narcotics Division, the number of newly reported cases of youth under 21 abusing psychotropic drugs rose significantly, from 1,120 in 1999 to 2,238 in 2000, and to 2,132 during the first nine months of 2001. 90% of these cases abused psychotropic drugs such as "ecstasy" and ketamine. Social workers of the Federation said that drug abuse had already permeated the leisure activities of youth and the thrill of drugs had become very popular. Since there were few cases of dramatic deaths resulting from drug abuse, the conventional means by which the message was being disseminated had proved to be ineffective. Social workers also found that the venue of drug abuse had changed from large parties such places as karaoke bars, parks, private gatherings, and even schools and homes, making the problems more difficult to detect. Coupled with this alarming trend was the rising number of smokers among junior secondary students, which has very often been one step away from experimenting with drugs.

The Federation has said that the effect of anti-drug abuse propaganda should be reviewed from time to time. The propagandas should focus on the changes in the pattern of youth drug abuse and let youth understand the long-term effect of the drugs.

01 / 01 / 2000

For the third time since 1997, the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups conducted a survey in an attempt at determining an Indicator of Youth Values. As a result, along with other research and analyses done throughout the year 2000, the Federation has now released its latest findings entitled, "Ten Significant Trends Among Youth."

1. The Government gets a higher rating, from youth, but their own sense of belonging to Hong Kong decreases

According to the "Indicator of Youth Values" Survey 2000, respondents gave the SAR Government a rating higher than what it had received in 1998, up from 30% to 37%. At the same time, even though 80% of youth felt as if they belonged to Hong Kong, this figure was slightly lower than the 88% polled in 1998, while those wishing to emigrate rose from 25% to 33%.

2. Strong belief in press freedom, but not much confidence in press credibility

83% of respondents believed that Hong Kong has a free press. However, only 37 % expressed satisfaction on its performance, as compared to 61% polled in 1998. 84% of youth also believed that the media over-exaggerated stories focusing on sex and violence.

3. Agreement to abide by the law, except when it seemed unreasonable

94% of respondents agreed to abide by the law. 45%, however, would do so only if the law appeared reasonable, thereby weighing the logic of a law, over and above its simple promulgation.

4. Little confidence in employment prospects, but an increase in wishing to start own businesses

In spite of the recovery from the Asian Financial Crisis, youth still did not have much confidence in employment prospects for themselves. Only 47% of respondents believed that it was not difficult in finding a job, 67% of youth polled had the confidence in their own skills to make a living, a proportion lower than those surveyed in 1998 (75%). Yet 63% of respondents believed that starting their own businesses would be better than being employed by someone else, a figure higher than that of 1998 at 54%.

5. A lower rating for school education and little confidence in developing life-long learning techniques

While 89% believed that an education gleaned from school was useful, this was a lower figure than that found in 1998 (94%). Those in the older age bracket (from 25 to 39 years old) supported this more than those aged between 15 and 24 years old. Meanwhile, 57 % of respondents had their doubts as to whether they could sustain a process of life-long learning techniques, in spite of their greater concern with education outside the classroom.

6. Basic grasp of Information Technology applications, in spite of concerns of a "digital divide"

73% of respondents were able to access the Internet and had some basic knowledge of Information Technology (IT) applications. However a family’s socio-economic status had repercussions on how and when youth learnt about IT. As IT is seen as crucial to future employment, a "digital divide" is likely to be a potential problem among youth. As IT grows in popularity, particularly amongst youth, the level of Internet crimes would also increase.

7. More open attitudes towards sex, with greater calls for schools to provide more sex education

The Survey found that the attitude of youth towards sex was more liberal than previously. 91% of youth called on schools to provide better sex education, including information about contraception. Young people were more open to pre-marital sexual relations, with only 35% considering this type of behaviour wrong, as compared with 45% polled in 1997. 58% of respondents found abortions to be acceptable, while 22% believed that having more than one sex partner at a time was also acceptable.

8. Strong value placed on families, but some youth were unable to solve conflicts within the home

88% of respondents claimed families to be more important and stated that they had good relationships with their family members. 10-20% were not happy with their familial relationships, while 12% indicated that the relationship with parents was not so strong. Of those aged between 15 and 24, 17% claimed to be at loggerheads with their parents, while amongst 25-39 year olds, only 9.3% could not get on with their parents. Very often conflict arose as a result of differing opinions on discipline and education.

9. Psychotropic drug abuse worsening amongst adolescents

The use of psychotropic drugs, such as Ecstasy and Ketamine, increased among adolescents. There was a rise in Ecstasy use for all abusers from 2.3% to 10.9%, while those using Ketamine rose from 0.2% to 4.6%. Abuse was also found to have increased across the boarder in Mainland China, particularly Shenzhen[1]. Statistics from the Narcotics Division indicated that the number of youth abusing drugs in the first half of 2000 was 2,047, over 80% of the total figure of 2,479 from 1999.

10. Problems in youth crimes sustained, while development of gang membership in New Towns indicate potential threat

Statistics from the Fight Crime Committee indicated that the number of 7 to 15 year olds arrested from January to July 2000, was 18% higher than the same time period the year before. Amongst 16-20 year olds, the numbers were decreasing, but remained twice that of adults arrested. Research by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups[2] found that triad influence began with the initial development of New Towns, which could lead to the breeding of youth gangs.

In integrating the above analysis, it can be determined that youth are not confident in either their own employment prospects or their abilities towards life-long learning. This is a cause for concern. As Hong Kong becomes more of a knowledge economy based society, the current concepts on speciality and educational credentials have become outdated. The upcoming entry of China into the World Trade Organisation (WTO) will lead to competition in the human resource market of Hong Kong. A sound life-long education would be especially advantageous to youth with a lower educational standard and with little experience, to adapt to the ever-changing labour market. The education, industrial and commercial sectors should work together to provide more opportunities for life-long learning in order to increase the confidence of youth.

As the media provides much information and analysis on social and public affairs, it plays a key role in the development and participation of youth. Media education, which provides youth with independent analyses and judgements towards the media, would improve their understanding.

Mr. Paul Chan, the Deputy Executive Director of the Federation, said civil education and the promotion of voluntary services would help to increase the social participation and feeling of belonging among youth. He also claimed that conflicts between family members could erode family relationships and suggested that social workers extend the concept of "quality education" to "quality family education" in order to improve the relationship between parents and children.

The Federation was also concerned about the involvement of adolescents in the increase of Internet crimes. Mr. Chan said that while many adolescents had demonstrated a good ability at information technology, he was worried that the fictitious world of the Internet would lower behavioural principles and increase the possibility of youth committing Internet crimes. He suggested that society should emphasise moral standards in IT education, so as to reduce the potential for Internet crimes.

With regard to youth gangs, Mr. Chan said that the development of New Towns, which is set to continue, contained a high proportion of young people. He suggested that the Government take preventative steps in the initial stages of New Town development by providing necessary community facilities to youth. Police, the educational sector, social services, parents and district organisations should also communicate and collaborate frequently in order to prevent youth from joining gangs and encouraging the spread of Triad Societies.

The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups has published Youth Trends in Hong Kong 2000. It is hoped that the book will raise the awareness of society to youth problems and youth development trends. The Survey on the "Indicator of Youth Values" was conducted from 24 to 31 March 2000. 875 young people, aged between 15 and 39, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The response rate was 42.9 per cent and the standard error was below ±1.7 per cent.

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[1] Hong Kong Council of Social Services. (2000). The Serious Situation of Adolescents Abusing Drugs on the Mainland. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Council of Social Services. [2] The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups. (1999). Youth Study Series No. 23 – A Study on Youth Gangs in New Town Development. Hong Kong: the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups.

01 / 01 / 1999

"Ten Significant Trends Among Youth" 


The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups completed a youth trends research. The research contained two main parts: the first part was an analysis of the latest youth trends according to data compiled from government statistics and relevant organizations; while the second part was the survey on "Indicators of Youth Values".

Results from the survey and significant trends were compiled and observed as follows:
  • Young people were not optimistic in employment under the financial crisis.
  • Young people emphasized on education. They hoped to gain higher educational credentials.
  • Young people supported traditional family values. Most of them thought they are likely to get married and they also favour more siblings.
  • Young people were not yet conscious about the concept of “life-long education”.
  • Young people were not satisfied with their own language standards.
  • Young people were more positive towards social participation after the return of sovereignty.

The survey on the "Indicators of Youth Values" was conducted from 31 August to 3 September 1998. 573 young people, aged between 15 and 39, were successfully interviewed by telephone through a random sampling. The ten aspects of youth values measured include: family, education, social participation, sex, individual, rule of law, employment, media, and identification with the society.

1 

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Journal of Youth Studies
July 2016

Volume 19 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 38

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