The Intergenerational Poverty Problem and Its Alleviation Strategy - WONG Hung
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
[Abstract] Based on the survey data of the Hong Kong Poverty Line Study, this study selects 368 households with at least 1 youth household member between the ages of 15 and 21. The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of adult and youth human capital, the quantity and quality of the social capital of the family, and the adult and youth social exclusion from the labour market on the poverty level of the households. The poverty level of the households is found to be correlated to human capital, social capital, and adult exclusion from the labour market, but not to youth exclusion from the labour market. According to the regression model results on the impact on the poverty level, the degree of impact is as follows: adult exclusion from the labour market, adult educational attainment, and the quantity of social capital. The author suggests that a more holistic poverty alleviation strategy should be adopted that should target both poor youth as well as their parents. Moreover, resource allocation should not just incline towards youth. It should also focus on building human capital and solving the social exclusion problem of the older generation.
Policy Responses to Intergenerational Poverty - Cherry TSE
Secretary to the Commission on Poverty
[Abstract] It is the established policy of the HKSAR Government to ensure that children’s healthy and balanced development is not compromised by the financial situation of their families. Preventing and alleviating intergenerational poverty is one of the work priorities of the Commission on Poverty. A dedicated Task Force on Children and Youth was set up in May 2005 to focus on improving the interface between existing policies and measures so that, from a life-cycle perspective, wholesome development needs of children and youth are better catered for. This article provides an overview of the existing services for children and youth in relation to tackling intergenerational poverty, as well as of the focus of work of the Task Force.
The Role of Social Policies in Alleviating Intergenerational Poverty - Christine FANG
Chief Executive, The Hong Kong Council of Social Service
[Abstract] This article highlights the role of social policies in combating intergenerational poverty, and suggests "family-based," "development-based," and "community-based" policy orientations that can be adopted. The government is advised to intervene through social policies in the areas of social protection, labour, education and training, and social inclusion. These policies should respond to the material and nonmaterial needs of deprived families, and assist them to break the cycle of poverty.
Rethinking Strategy Against Poverty: Hong Kong and Abroad - CHONG Chan-yau
Senior Advisor, Oxfam Hong Kong
[Abstract] Social and economic realities keep the cycle of poverty at work. Unless a society can offer a comprehensive social security programme, a family has the tendency to remain poor through the generations. his paper examines policy in Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, the United States and the United Kingdom and argues that governments that adopt a multi-dimensional safety net and family-friendly policies will be more effective at combating poverty. Oxfam Hong Kong suggests the Hong Kong SAR government to consult the comparative study as a reference for policy making.
Social Exclusion and Intergenerational Poverty: Situation and Strategies - HO Hei-wah
Director, Society for Community Organization
[Abstract] The disparity between the rich and the poor is becoming greater and greater. Since a mechanism for poverty reduction and elimination in social policy is lacking, the opportunity for grassroots people to improve their conditions by themselves is shrinking. The poor condition of the stark poor and low-income families is inherited by their children, which has even generated the problem of child labour. This paper overviews the poor condition of Hong Kong children and analyzes the structural causes of it. By looking into different public policies and opinions, it delineates how social exclusion is deteriorating while the development of children is obstructed. Finally, the paper gives some suggestions as to how to eliminate the problem of intergenerational poverty.
Strategies to Eliminate Intergenerational Poverty - Thomas S. T. CHAN
Thomas S. T. CHAN
Chief Executive Officer, World Vision International - China Office
[Abstract] Poverty affects the development of children and youth in a myriad of ways, with the result that neediness often passes from one generation to the next. Based on 10 years of experience in serving children in poor communities of China, the author describes how the lack of various resources impacts the development of children. The strategy employed by World Vision China to combat this tendency is also discussed.
Family System and Youth Poverty - Nelson W. S. CHOW
Nelson W. S. CHOW
Chair Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong
[Abstract] This article begins with the changes that have taken place in the family system in Hong Kong in the last 20 years. With the divorce rate increasing and a higher proportion of the population remaining unmarried, families in Hong Kong today take many different forms and structures. It is argued that these changes have resulted in increasing poverty among the young, not only in monetary terms but also in terms of being poor and disadvantaged in their relationships with other people and in spirit. Hence, any strategy to improve the situation must be multidimensional in its approach, putting the family at the centre.
Is Education an Effective Way to Alleviate Intergenerational Poverty? - YUEN Yuet Mui Celeste
YUEN Yuet Mui Celeste
Lecturer, Department of Educational Policy and Administration, The Hong Kong Institute of Education
[Abstract] This article discusses the relationship between poverty and education. Improved schooling can combat intergenerational poverty. In order to break through the chain effect of "social background—education achievement," schools must minimize any further disadvantages for students who are already socially disadvantaged. Alongside the role the government's education policy plays in tackling poverty, the findings show that teachers also play an important role. This article recommends that teachers pay more attention to raising students' academic self-esteem and to holding appropriate expectations of all students so as to effectively tackle the unequal educational results caused by poverty.
Poverty Reduction: An Urban Planning Perspective - Stanley C.T. YIP
Stanley C.T. YIP
President, Hong Kong Institute of Planners
[Abstract] This article discusses the relationship between urban planning and poverty reduction. It first looks at the origin of modern urban planning as a profession and as a vehicle for the implementation of public policies. It outlines the evolution of the profession’s aims and methods over the last few decades in response to the problem of urban poverty. The author suggests new perspectives for consideration by decision makers that could institute changes to the objectives, means, and processes of urban planning to enable the profession to effect poverty reduction.
A Way to Minimize Intergenerational Poverty: Helping Our Youth to Enter the Labour Market by Enhancing their Employability and Self-Confidence - Gary TANG Leung-shun
Gary TANG Leung-shun
Supervisor, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups
[Abstract] Hong Kong's economy has been greatly affected by the 1997 Asian crisis. The unemployment problem among young people has drawn much attention. Those low academic achievers who lack work experience and job-related skills are facing difficulties in finding a job. Even worse, those who come from lower-class families are facing the intergenerational poverty problem. This paper examines different kinds of projects and supporting schemes that aim to enhance the employability and self-confidence of youth so as to minimize the intergenerational poverty problem.