Journal of Youth Studies

January 2008

Volume 11 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 21

Feature : Can Social Enterprise Make a Difference?

Rediscovering Social Enterprises - YUEN Yiu Kai Terence
YUEN Yiu Kai Terence
Lecturer, Division of Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This paper attempts to shed new light on our understanding of social enterprise through a nonmainstream perspective. The article first explains why the current debate on social enterprise lacks imagination, and suggests the use of the concept of social entrepreneurship as a reference to investigate social enterprises. The article then offers a definition of social entrepreneurship, and argues that the development of social enterprises is but one possible outcome of social innovation. The practice of social entrepreneurship in social enterprises is examined by analysing two local cases. The article concludes by pointing out some pending issues associated with the promotion of social enterprises in Hong Kong.
Keywords: social enterprise; social entrepreneurship; social innovation; organisational theory; Hong Kong
Everyone a Changemaker: Starting with Youth - K. K. TSE
Founder and Managing Director, K. K. Tse and Associates

[Abstract] A changemaker is an individual who has the passion and ability to effect positive change in society. The term and its practice have been widely popularised in recent years by the group “Ashoka: Innovators for the Public.” Ashoka came to recognise the importance of changemakers through its extensive and intensive work promoting social entrepreneurship worldwide. They found that all social entrepreneurs are actually catalyst changemakers, inspiring a large number of ordinary people to become changemakers too. What is more, most social entrepreneurs possess the mindset of a changemaker from very early in their life. Ashoka concluded that social entrepreneurship’s ultimate goal is a world in which everyone has the freedom, skills, and societal support to effect positive change. The key to achieving this is encouraging and empowering young people to become changemakers. This entails a society-wide redefinition of youth years as a time of leadership and positive social initiative, thus significantly increasing the number of changemakers in the world.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, changemaker, youth development, youth empowerment, global youth movement
How Can Social Enterprise Be Nurtured through Policies? - Christine FANG
Christine FANG
Chief Executive, Hong Kong Council of Social Service

[Abstract] Social enterprise has become a top priority initiative of the HKSAR government to address the problem of poverty. This paper reveals the difficulties encountered by social enterprises in achieving the “double bottom line”- financial and social objectives. It suggests that the government should assist social enterprise through various policies such as public procurement, funding support, and rental concessions.
Keywords: social enterprise; poverty alleviation; double bottom line; policy on social enterprise
Social Capital and Social Enterprise—Preconditions and Outcomes - YEUNG Ka-sing
YEUNG Ka-sing
Chairman, Community Investment and Inclusion Fund, Labour and Welfare Bureau

[Abstract] Examined from the conceptual framework and experience of the Community Investment and Inclusion Fund (CIIF), social capital development generates a broad range of socioeconomic outcomes, including the creation of the conditions necessary for establishing successful social enterprises. Three sets of strategies have been found to be critical in increasing the social and economic participation of the disadvantaged: transforming the capacity, mindset, motivation, and roles of the disadvantaged from passive vulnerability to that of active contributors; expanding perspectives through cross-generational and cross-strata networks; and creating new opportunities and synergy through tripartite partnerships resulting in greater social inclusion.
Keywords: social capital; social enterprise; pre-conditions; transformation; tripartite partnerships
Why Do They Succeed? Social Enterprise in the UK - Jonathan BLAND
Jonathan BLAND
Chief Executive, Social Enterprise Coalition

[Abstract] This paper explains how social enterprise is defined in the UK and what these businesses can offer. It looks at how support for the movement has grown, particularly at the very highest political level. It goes on to consider both the work being done to embed social enterprise in the public consciousness, and to tackle those barriers that are limiting the potential growth of the movement. Finally, with this journal in mind, the delivery of youth services by social enterprises is explored in more detail.
Keywords: social enterprise, Social Enterprise Coalition
Social Enterprise as an Interactive Process between Entrepreneurs and the Community - Kevin AU Yina MAO
Kevin AU
Department of Management and CUHK Centre for Entrepreneurship, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Yina MAO
Department of Management, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Taking the perspective of social capital, this study aims to explore the dynamic, interactive process by which a Hong Kong social enterprise emerges and grows. The case of City Greeny, a young firm founded by an entrepreneur rather than a social service agency, was examined to illustrate how the firm was established and how the founder, interacting with the community, managed social capital to find and utilise resources for company growth. Practical implications for social enterprises in Hong Kong are discussed at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels of analysis.
Keywords: social capital; social enterprise; multilevel analysis; entrepreneurship
Walking with the Deprived—A Story about the Social Enterprises of Stewards - Philip CHAN
Philip CHAN
Executive Secretary (Social Service), Stewards Limited

[Abstract] Stewards Limited is one of the social welfare organisations in Hong Kong that has progressively developed social enterprises. Throughout recent years, the organisation has established over 20 social enterprises that include tuck shops, convenience stores, gardening services, and car cleaning services. In this essay, the author shares the stories of how and why Stewards have moved on from their base in sheltered workshops for the handicapped into the area of social enterprise. At the same time, he shares the pros and cons of social enterprises initiated by a social welfare organisation, and makes suggestions on the future development of social enterprises in Hong Kong.
Keywords: social enterprise; sheltered workshop; social inclusion; social welfare agencies; commercial enterprise
Possible Development Models for Social Enterprise in Hong Kong - Frederick FUNG Kin-Kee
Frederick FUNG Kin-Kee
Chairman, ADPL Social Service Centre

[Abstract] Though a clear definition of “Social enterprise” is yet to be agreed upon, it is encouraging that the concept has gained recognition and that there has been rapid growth in such initiatives. Since 2002, the ADPL Social Service Centre has been running a social enterprise, without any external funding, to help the samhong workers to be gainfully employed when the economy hit bottom. This pioneering project has managed to break even in its fourth year. This article discusses the possible development models for the sustainability of social enterprises, with an illustration of operational experience from the ADPL Social Service Centre. We would like to urge the government and different sectors in society to invest in the start-up of social enterprises to create job opportunities for disadvantaged groups and to help them to become self-reliant.
Keywords: social enterprise; unemployment; samhong; employment assistance; social security
Planting Social Enterprise: The Development of the Community Recycling Co-op - LAM Shui Hum
LAM Shui Hum
Director, Industrial Relations Institute

[Abstract] This paper shares the experience of the Community Recycling Co-op (CRC), set up in 2002, and coorganised by the Industrial Relations Institute and the Women Workers Cooperative. Based in Shamshuipo, the CRC enables resource reallocation and provides work opportunities for women workers. Grassroots social capital and reciprocal social networks have been built up. Nongovernment organisations’ autonomous collective power is significant for meeting different challenges and difficulties when developing social enterprises, but the government must provide more solid support.
Keywords: community recycling co-op; autonomous collective power; reciprocal community; resources reallocation; government solid support
FRC Group: Sharing Our Experience - Verity TIMMINS
FRC Group

[Abstract] FRC Group is a pioneering UK social enterprise based in Liverpool, providing services across the UK and particularly in the North West. Founded as a furniture reuse charity in 1988 in response to inner city poverty, we have grown into a complex group of social businesses providing a range of goods and services that meet our objectives of being great for people, great for the planet, a great place to work, and great to do business with. We have a mature values culture that gives a framework for how we do the things we do. We innovate to create sustainable businesses that bring about social and environmental change. Our experiences as a social enterprise have shaped our growth and how we continue to develop our businesses.
Keywords: values; social change; environment; long-term unemployed; sustainability
The Movement and the Operations of the Seikatsu Club Consumers’ Cooperative Union—Cooperative's Potential - Koichi KATO
Koichi KATO
Chairperson, Seikatsu Club Consumers’ Co-operative Union

[Abstract] While honestly implementing its mission and principles, the Seikatsu Club Consumers’ Cooperative Union has not only strengthened food safety, but it has also set an example for a new social movement, and is thus much admired both in Japan and overseas. Rather than being passive consumers, members take an active role in both the movement and the operations, and their progress relies on each member’s spontaneity. This is how the Seikatsu Club Consumers’ Cooperative Union is succeeding today.
Keywords: co-op; collective purchase; general daily goods; new social movement; conscious consumer
Looking Beyond the Horizon: The Importance of Nurturing Young Social Entrepreneurs - Louisa LAU
Louisa LAU
Secretary General, Youth Business Hong Kong

[Abstract] To achieve its objectives, a social enterprise must be sustainable. To ensure the sustainability of a social enterprise, it is very important to have a capable entrepreneur as the entrepreneur is the soul of an enterprise. In Hong Kong, social enterprises are normally run by nongovernment organisations (NGOs) with the staff mainly coming from the social work profession. We believe that it will be much more effective to help entrepreneurs commit to social good and run a social enterprise than to train good-hearted people to do the job. From the experience of Youth Business Hong Kong, young people in Hong Kong have entrepreneurial aspirations and potential. NGOs should focus on nurturing youngsters to become entrepreneurs and encouraging them to commit themselves to social enterprise rather than running the business by themselves, as this will help contribute to the sustainable development of social enterprise in Hong Kong.
Keywords: soul; sustain; nurturing; young entrepreneur; YBHK

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Sharing Experiences of Social Enterprise

How Community Enterprises Develop Their Network for Cooperative Production and Marketing: The Example of the ACT Cooperative Shop - CHIN Huei-wen
CHIN Huei-wen
Doctoral Student, Department of Agricultural Extension, National Taiwan University

[Abstract] This paper reviews developments in cooperative production and marketing following the 921 earthquake in Taiwan, based on theories of community building and agent network. It is hoped that this paper will be a useful reference for community workers in related areas of work.
Keywords: community enterprise; community building; fair trade; agent network
Recovery from Disaster: The Social Enterprise Experience Sharing of the Long-Yan-Lin Community of Nantou County Jhongliao Township - LIAO Chen-yi
LIAO Chen-yi
Chief Executive Officer, Long-Yan-Lin Welfare Association

[Abstract] The 921 earthquake united the people of the Long-Yan-Lin community of Jhongliao Township in Nantou County, Taiwan and this enabled the specific needs of the community to be identified. By forming an association, the community has developed localized community welfare services and different community enterprises. The profit generated by the community enterprises is used to maintain the welfare services. This business model reduces the dependency on government resources, which has enhanced the autonomy of the community. However, there are still challenges with regard to human resources, competition, and the conflict between running the business and providing services.
Keywords: social enterprise; community enterprise; localization
The Experience of The Corner Shop and The Development of Social Enterprise in Macau - SOU Keng Ieong
SOU Keng Ieong
Vocational Rehabilitation Manager, The Corner Shop, Richmond Fellowship of Macau

[Abstract] The concept of social enterprise has recently generated a great deal of discussion amongst social services. In Macau, nongovernment organisations started to examine the feasibility of developing social enterprise operations. The biggest challenge is to satisfy the principles of both commercial and social responsibility. This paper briefly describes the history and future development of social enterprise in Macau.
Keywords: vocational training; social inclusion; social enterprise; business plan; marginalised sectors
Can We Regard Social Enterprise as a Business? The Operation of the Personal Emergency Link Service - MA Kam Wah, Timothy
MA Kam Wah, Timothy
Executive Director, Senior Citizen Home Safety Association

[Abstract] Whilst there is emerging concern about the growth of social enterprise in Hong Kong, and seemingly lots of different interpretations of the concept, we really have to think about the issue: Is social enterprise a business? This paper aims to share the experience learnt from the past 11 years of operation of the Personal Emergency Link Service (Ping On Chung) of the Senior Citizen Home Safety Association. It shows how the Association delivers and operates the welfare service by adopting the social enterprise approach. From experience, it has identified that the ultimate mission of a social enterprise is to run a profitable business while actualising its social mission by using its profit to care for the needy elderly.
Keywords: social enterprise; social enterprise experience; social enterprise is business

Professional Exchange

Popular Music among Hong Kong Youth - HO Wai-Chung
HO Wai-Chung
Professor, Department of Music, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] This paper tracks the relationship between popular music and youth culture in Hong Kong with respect to popular idols and technological advancement. It highlights the specific ways in which musical production is shaped by commercial production, and the broader social context within which the promotion of popular music and popular singers takes place. Popular music consumption, like that of other media and technology, is woven into the daily life of youth through various means, such as playing compact discs on computers, ringtones, and by downloading music from the Internet. In particular, this paper examines three pairs of relationships associated with the transmission of cultural values in popular music and educational beliefs in school: (a) between students’ preferred popular music and the Hong Kong music curriculum: (b) between students’ experiences of popular music and that of their teachers; and (c) between school education and pirated music.
Keywords: popular music; Hong Kong youth; music education
Peer Influences and the Process of Juvenile Theft - LI Chi Mei Jessica
LI Chi Mei Jessica
Lecturer, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Theft is the most common offence committed by youngsters. Based upon the qualitative data abstracted from semistructured interviews with 30 subjects aged from 10 to 17, the author tried to understand the decision-making process of juvenile thieves. It was found that peer influences are salient to youngsters' decisions during their offending process. Peer influences particular to juvenile thieves are identified and categorised in this study, which also has some implications for the prevention of criminality. The paper argues that understanding the ways peer influences affect youngsters is more important than solely looking at youngsters' associations with delinquent friends.
Keywords: juvenile theft; peer influences; cooffender
What a Small World We Live In! - LEUNG Yee Kong
LEUNG Yee Kong
Department of Sociology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Recent concerns about the "socially withdrawn youth on the net" describe these young Internet addicts as living in solitude. Over 40 years, the research findings on the "small world problem" occurring in real as well as virtual societies have suggested that the social distance between two mutually unknown persons could be as little as six or seven people! The findings verify our daily experience and the mundane saying "What a small world we live in!" Since then, the phenomenon has been popularised by the phrase "six degrees of separation." The "small world phenomenon" has significant implications for locating the "socially withdrawn youth" and establishing online contact with them. This may suggest that some personal but limited-scale virtual networks could be more effective for such purposes.
Keywords: Internet; socially withdrawn youth; virtual communities; social network
Life Needs of Adolescents in Taichung City: An Ecological Systems Analysis - Hsiu-yu CHANG Hsi-sheng WEI Ji-kang CHEN Yi-lin LIU
Hsiu-yu CHANG
Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, National Taichung University

Hsi-sheng WEI
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Shih-Chien University
Ji-kang CHEN
Ph.D. Candidate, School of Social Work, University of Southern California
Yi-lin LIU
M.S.W. Student, Department of Social Work, Tunghai University

[Abstract] This study aims to analyse the life needs of adolescents in Taichung city from the perspective of ecological systems. The authors suggest that adolescents should not be considered as merely the targets for treatment in welfare policy making and practice. Social workers must conduct comprehensive needs assessments of all aspects of adolescents' life and intervention plans should be designed to fulfil the actual needs of adolescents.
Keywords: adolescents; ecological systems; life needs
Book Review: Youth Work: Voices of Practice - CHOI Wai Leuk
CHOI Wai Leuk
Youth Worker
Authors: Jean Spence, Carol Devanney, and Kylie Noonan
Publisher: The National Youth Agency
Place of Publication: UK
Publication Date: March, 2006
Keywords: youth work practice, youth work research, ethnography, photo-voice