Volume 12, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 23) Changing Faces of Young People ── 60 Years After the Founding of the PRC

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2009

Volume 12 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 23

Feature: Changing Faces of Young People ── 60 Years After the Founding of the PRC

Economic Development of Mainland China and Youth Employment in the 21st Century - Yiyong YANG Jiaqi AN
Yiyong YANG
Director-General, Professor and PhD Supervisor, Institute of Social Development Studies, National Development and Reform Commission Vice-President, The China Association for Labor Studies
Jiaqi AN
PhD Student, Institute of Social Security Studies, Renmin University of China

[Abstract] In the 21st century, China must focus on improving the socialist market economy, transforming the pattern of economic growth, cooperating with other countries, and applying science and technology in the process of economic development. These areas have a great impact on youth employment in China. Young people should be able to advance their career by preparing well their physical constitution, psychological qualities, and knowledge and skills.
Keywords: the 21st century; economic development; youth; employment
The Impact of Globalisation on the Values of Contemporary Chinese Youth - Jiufu LAN
Jiufu LAN
College of Philosophy and Sociology, Beijing Normal University

[Abstract] This paper focuses on the impact on the values of contemporary Chinese youth brought about by the exposure to a multiplicity of world cultures through globalisation. It mainly centres on two key issues with regard to Chinese young people today: one is the conflict of values between Eastern and Western culture; the other is the challenge of value identification.
Keywords: globalisation; value conflict; value identification
Fostering the Consciousness of the Rule of Law among Youth - Xianchu ZHANG
Xianchu ZHANG
Professor and Associate Dean, Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Fostering the consciousness of the rule of law among youth is a great challenge facing all countries throughout the world. In the new legal environment, youth are not only better protected, but also have more legal responsibilities and liabilities. This article reviews the international trend in cultivating and promoting the consciousness of the rule of law among youth, highlights some major characteristics of such development in mainland China, and identifies some areas where improvement is urgently needed. The author argues that fostering the awareness of the rule of law among youth has universal value and cannot be effectively carried out on a force-feeding basis. The goal may only be achieved with a balanced approach between rights-obligations and education-participation, together with the development of the rule of law in mainland China.
Keywords: youth; children’s citizenship; rule of law; citizenship education; mainland China
The National Pride of Hong Kong Youth: Situation, Causes, and Implications - Timothy K. Y. WONG Po San WAN Kenneth W. K. LAW
Timothy K. Y. WONG
Associate Director, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Po San WAN
Research Officer, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Kenneth W. K. LAW
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Lingnan University

[Abstract] National pride is an important basis for the internal cohesiveness of modern nation-states. This paper makes use of data from a 2007 social survey to examine the national pride amongst Hong Kong youth, and the factors shaping it. It finds that national pride amongst the youth of Hong Kong is very high and similar to that of older age groups, reflecting the success of Hong Kong’s reunification with the Chinese nation-state over the past decade. This study also reveals that the factors which have shaped the national pride of Hong Kong people include place of birth, subjective class identification, satisfaction with the local economy, satisfaction with local democratic development, local pride in being citizens of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, and trust in the central government. The last two factors seem to most engender national pride.
Keywords: national pride; national education; youth; class identification; HKSAR government
The Internet Culture of the e-Generation - Haoqing WANG
Haoqing WANG
PhD, Deputy Director and Associate Professor, Global Communication Research Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

[Abstract] The e-generation refers to those born in the e-times of the 1980s and ‘90s whose lives have been closely connected to mobile phones and the Internet. Understanding the culture of the e-generation is not only an academic task for cultural studies and social science scholars, but also a cultural concern of the wider society. This article tries to explain the 10 main conflicts that the e-generation are dynamically experiencing in their political, technical, entertainment, emotional, and school life with the development of the Internet.
Keywords: e-generation; e-times; Internet; cultural conflicts
Challenges and Obstacles in the Development of Chinese Youths - Chunmei ZHANG
Chunmei ZHANG
Lecturer, Department of Psychology, School of Philosophy, Wuhan University
Zongkui ZHOU
Professor, School of Psychology, Huazhong Normal University

[Abstract] Since China embarked on the path of reforming and opening up, youths in the country have experienced complex social vicissitude, and their process of socialisation has become increasingly challenging. The stress of studying and employment, psychological problems, Internet addiction, and juvenile delinquency are becoming increasingly difficult obstacles to their development. To help youths successfully deal with all these pressures, it is necessary to transform conceptions of youth development, invest in the macro social environment such as through improving relevant policy, reform education and family parenting, and provide effective psychological consultation for youths.
Keywords: youths; development; psychological health; Internet addiction; juvenile delinquency
A Discussion on the Basis and Methods of China’s Youth-Related Work Development──Community Volunteer Service and the Growth of Young People - Yili MA
Yili MA
Director, Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau

[Abstract] Young volunteers who serve the community, while internalising the value of voluntary service as a kind of social responsibility and meeting the needs of the service resources of the community, have enhanced the sense of belonging and cohesion of the community and become a positive model for the self-development of young people and solutions to juvenile problems. The future community volunteer service of young people should seek to realise its true values by helping to rebuild the community, by improving its professionalisation in terms of the development of social work, and by attaining standardisation through the institutionalisation of volunteer work. Through this, it can become an effective means for the development of grassroots community management and youth-related work in Mainland China.
Keywords: community; youth; volunteer service
Globalisation and Chinese Youth - Yinya LI
Yinya LI
President, British Chinese Youth Federation

[Abstract] This paper attempts to evaluate, from an unofficial perspective, how Chinese youth can participate in a world undergoing globalisation. It suggests that Chinese young people should learn about Chinese and Western cultures in tandem and know how to tell the differences, and the advantages and disadvantages of both. There are four parts to the paper: 1) globalisation or internationalisation, 2) the extent of knowledge about globalisation amongst China’s youth, 3) globalisation and employment issues for China’s youth, and 4) Chinese culture for China’s youth in the midst of the impact of globalisation.
Keywords: globalisation; China; youth; employment; culture
The Practical Experience of Nurturing Young Global Citizens - Phoenix M. W. NGAI
Phoenix M. W. NGAI
Secretary General, The Dragon Foundation

[Abstract] We have entered into an era of globalisation in which different nations, sectors, and individuals are highly interdependent. We enjoy the convenience and advantages of the rapid development of information technology, but we also have to bear the adverse consequences and problems of globalisation. To tackle global problems, we rely on our young leaders who possess the vision, ethics, and skills of global citizens. The Dragon Foundation has sought to achieve this objective through the Global Citizenship Programme since 2004. This paper outlines the content and essence of the programme, and describes how we can nurture our future leaders to be global citizens.
Keywords: global citizen; globalisation; youth leader; global vision; international organization
Secondary Education and Personality Development──The Experience of the “Enjoy Studying and Performing Duties” Project - Shusheng WEI
Shusheng WEI
Party Secretary and Director, Panjin Education Bureau, Liaoning

[Abstract] Developing a good personality should be an objective of secondary education. Students should develop values that enable them to enjoy studying and performing their duties in order to achieve the healthy development of their personality. This is especially important during a period when the economy is developing rapidly. Schools should work together with families and society to help students develop such values. We should understand the importance of having such values before we act. The values should be developed through daily habits and the experience of joy. As a result, students will benefit from these sorts of values that they will hold.
Keywords: secondary education; personality development

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: Repeating the Lessons: The Phenomenon of Private Tutoring

Private Tutoring in Singapore: Bursting out of the Shadows - Jason TAN
Jason TAN
Associate Professor, Policy and Leadership Studies, National Institute of Education, Singapore

[Abstract] This article focuses on private tutoring in Singapore. It discusses the scope and prevalence of private tutoring in Singapore, asking questions such as “Who engages private tutors?” “Why engage private tutors?” “Who provides private tutoring?” and Why do private tutors engage in private tutoring?” It also raises important implications for mainstream schools, such as the nature of the services private tutors provide, as well as the possible impact on teaching and learning in mainstream schools. Next, it reveals the ambivalent response of both the Ministry of Education and of schools to the existence of private tutoring. It concludes with some sobering thoughts on the relationship between private tutoring and the mainstream school system.
Keywords: private tutoring; Singapore education
A Cultural Analysis of Cram Schools in Hong Kong: Impact on Youth Values and Implications - Percy KWOK
Percy KWOK
Lecturer, Department of Educational Policy and Administration, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

[Abstract] In the face of heavy demand for private supplementary tutoring in basic education, the state seems to have adopted a consumerism model in the decentralised governance of mass tutoring, allowing students and parents to select for themselves course information, payment amounts and methods, tutoring dates and times, and physical conditions when buying services from registered cram schools in Hong Kong. In the study reported here, a 3-level cultural analysis of cram schools was conducted from 1998 to 2008 to examine the patterns of mass tuition trends in Hong Kong. The analysis investigated the impacts of such trends, or culture, upon youth values, and implications are drawn for policy making, educational reform, societal movements, and academic recommendations for further research.
Key words: tuition trends; cram schools; cultural analysis; youth values
A Positivistic Study on the Private Tutoring of Students in Urban China - Haiping XUE Yanqing DING
Haiping XUE
School of Educational Sciences, The Capital Normal University
Yanqing DING
Graduate School of Education, Peking University

[Abstract] This paper analyses the phenomenon of private tutoring of students in urban China based on data from the Chinese Urban Household Education and Employment Survey 2004. Results show that over half of the students surveyed received private tutoring in 2004, and students in compulsory education were most likely to receive private tutoring. Private tutoring leads to an imbalance in the quantity and quality of basic education received by children from families of different social statuses, which represents a challenge to the goal of basic education equality. Policy implications include emphasising the education inequality caused by such differences in the quality of basic education, and taking legislative and financial measures to reduce the differences in the quality of basic education.
Keywords: urban household; private tutoring; education equality
Cram Schooling in Taiwan - Jeng LIU
Jeng LIU
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Tunghai University

[Abstract] The majority of Taiwanese people have had some experience of cram schooling while growing up. From an academic perspective, cram schooling in Taiwan is not only a unique educational issue, but also a social fact worthy of closer examination. In this paper, I first describe the history of the development of cram schooling in Taiwan and demonstrate the general characteristics of cram schooling for different levels of students. Secondly, based on the theoretical perspectives of credentialism, cultural capital, and employment in the labour market, I analyse the causes of the rise in demand for cram schooling. And I propose some possible directions for future research and decision making with regard to relevant policies.
Keywords: cram schooling; credentialism; cultural capital; labour market

Professional Exchange

Concepts, Practices, and Development of Restorative Justice in Hong Kong - Dennis S. W. WONG
Dennis S. W. WONG
Associate Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Restorative justice, as both a philosophy and a practical model, links knowledge and practices with justice, crime prevention, offender rehabilitation, conflict management, and community mediation. It is one of the most rapidly emerging concepts in the field of criminology, and over the past 20 years has called upon different groups of aspirants such as scholars, social workers, psychologists, legal professionals, and policy makers to work together. The prime objective of restorative justice is to assist offenders to express remorse, seek forgiveness from victims, and repair the harm they have caused, through a restorative justice forum. This paper firstly explores the origins, content, and focus of restorative justice. By describing the efforts made by a group of scholars, it analyses how restorative justice has become a better recognised service strategy in youth offender rehabilitation and student discipline services. Moreover, this paper will discuss the future development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.
Keywords: restorative justice; crime prevention; mediation
Parental Involvement in and Support for Musical Participation: A Study of Young Hong Kong Students - Wing Wah LAW Wai Chung HO
Wing Wah LAW
Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Wai Chung HO
Professor, Department of Music, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] This paper examines various aspects of parental involvement in and support for musical participation, including concert attendance, music listening, watching music programmes at home, and overall financial support. It also examines students’ perceptions of parental involvement in, and support for, their instrument learning. Data are drawn from self-completed questionnaires administered in school from October to November 2007 to 1,493 Secondary 1 to Secondary 7 students attending a total of 10 Hong Kong secondary schools. The survey finds low overall levels of parental involvement in and support of students’ musical participation, with students reporting that financial assistance from their parents accounts for the majority of parental involvement. The results suggest it is important to determine how to make both students and parents interested in and excited about music, and how to get them to enjoy participating in music together.
Key words: parental involvement; musical participation; music education; Hong Kong; young students
Changes in Drug Subculture and Drug Trafficking Among Young People - Eric C. K. SO
Eric C. K. SO
Social Worker, PS33-Centre for Psychotropic Substance Abusers, Hong Kong Christian Service
Part-time Lecturer, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] In the last 3 years, the number of young people involved in drug trafficking has multiplied. This paper examines the relationship between changes in drug subculture and drug trafficking among youths. As a former police officer and an experienced frontline social worker in the drug rehabilitation field, the author briefly outlines the involvement of youth in the organised crime of drug trafficking on the streets. The paper explains the reasons behind their behaviour in the context of stringent social opportunities. The paper also proposes that with changes in drug subculture and triad culture, it has become much easier for young people to acquire the knowledge and techniques, and develop a network, that will facilitate drug trafficking; therefore, the chances of young people committing the crime of drug trafficking have increased.
Keywords: drug trafficking; drug subculture
The Reverse Migration of Young Women in Rural China After Marriage: The Example of Xiaodian District of Taiyuan City - Sulin LIU Run SHUAI
Sulin LIU
Research Center for Chinese Social History, Shanxi University
College of Humanities and Law, Taiyuan University of Technology

[Abstract] With the rapid urbanisation of rural districts, some village women who have already found a job in the city are now returning to their village. What are the reasons for this counterurbanised reverse migration? What will be its results? This paper uses the case of Xiaodian district in Taiyuan city to discuss the reasons for this reverse migration, the social structure background of the young women involved, their daily life conditions, as well as the social impact. It also proposes some countermeasurements to tackle the situation.
Keywords: reverse migration; rural young women; Xiaodian district
A Review of the Mate Selection Studies of Mainland Chinese Youth during the 30-Year Period of Reform and Opening Up - Lei GUAN
Teacher, School of China Communist Youth League Sichuan Committee

[Abstract] Mainland Chinese academics have published numerous papers on mate selection of young people during the 30-year period of reform and opening up. The author reviews these papers systematically in terms of the understanding and research views of youth mate selection, theories about youth mate selection, and discourses on the concepts and methods of youth mate selection. He also summarises the limitations of these studies with regard to theories and methods, research subjects, and research areas of youth mate selection.
Keywords: reform and opening up; youth mate selection; studies
A Study of Migrant Workers’ Understanding of Love and Marriage: The Example of Xiamen - Xiaomei YAN
Xiaomei YAN
Gender Research Centre, Jimei University, Xiamen
School of Political Science and Law, Jimei University, Xiamen

[Abstract] Migrant workers show both psychological and behavioural changes when they move from their village to the city. To study their understanding of love and marriage, we conducted a survey of sampled migrant workers in Xiamen: both men and women; single and married people. The main focuses of our analysis are changes in the criteria for choosing a spouse, changes in attitudes toward sex, the concept of happiness in marriage, and the understanding of how to handle family conflicts.
Keywords: migrant workers; love and marriage pattern