Volume 19, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 38) Pressures Faced by the Younger Generation

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2016

Volume 19 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 38


Feature: Pressures Faced by the Younger Generation

Youth Suicide and Its Prevention in Hong Kong: Emerging Approaches to a Long-Standing Issue - Yik Wa LAW
Yik Wa LAW
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong
Associate Director, Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention

【Abstract】Recent media reports on student suicides have led to a rethink of the effects of various types of intervention and prevention. The causes of suicide have changed little over the decades, but the underutilization of and non-contact with medical services remains common among people presenting suicidal behaviours, with or without psychiatric diagnoses. Suicide risk transcends the individual, personal level. This review paper highlights the emerging approaches to suicide prevention using an individual-in-context perspective and comprising collaborative efforts between professionals in multiple disciplines. Recent research suggests that these are promising strategies for delivering suicide interventions when contextual factors are taken into account. Placing a stronger emphasis on evaluating the impact and sustainability of various preventive measures and interventions is also a strategic way of addressing suicide and future prevention efforts, and of informing various types of practitioner in the field.

Keywords: youth suicide; multilayered intervention approach; community-based intervention; evaluation
Stress Management: Can Youth Stress Be Eased by Nurturing a Positive Attitude? - Siu Man HSU
Siu Man HSU
Supervisor (Student Counselling), The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

【Abstract】The increasing number of student suicides reported by the media has aroused the public’s concern. These incidents urge us to think about the current difficulties and pressures facing the youth. Are the existing educational, welfare and medical systems comprehensive enough to support the youth? Can the family perform its traditional functions in guiding the youth? In the unruly virtual world, is it difficult for the youth to maintain normal human relationships and uphold life values? In this essay, I shall investigate the pressures faced by the new generation on social and individual levels. I shall also review different programmes aimed at developing youth well-being. Whether the programmes are able to fulfil the needs of youth development is examined. In addition, recommendations and suggestions are made to facilitate a better development of the youth in different areas of society.

Keywords: stress; emotional wellness; emotional management; positive psychology; youth development
Intergenerational Conflict between Parents and Adolescents in Hong Kong - Tabitha Yin Ling NG
Tabitha Yin Ling NG
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Shue Yan University

【Abstract】Adolescence is the transitional stage from childhood to adulthood. Adolescents experience a dramatic change in physical, psychological, mental, social and spiritual areas. As adolescents are in the developmental stage of seeking independence and autonomy, intergenerational parent-adolescent conflict becomes more prominent. This article explores the causes of intergenerational conflict between parent and adolescent in Hong Kong, applying different theories of intergenerational conflict in the context of globalization and social structural change, the impact of parent-adolescent conflict on adolescents, and makes various recommendations.

Keywords: intergenerational conflict; globalization; social structural change; parent-adolescent tension; parenting
Adolescent Development and Mental Health: Challenges and Opportunities - Peysy Sin Yee CHOW
Petsy Sin Yee CHOW
Centre in Charge, Centre for Adolescent Mental Health Prevention and Intervention, Christian Family Service Centre

【Abstract】This article aims to explore the features of adolescent development in which a contemporary sets of problems and risks confronting youth. Even more, those of such risk factors may influence the adolescent mental health. Therefore, how the adolescent respond to those challenges are important to their positive growth. There are two main types of coping strategies; they are approach and withdrawal strategies. For adolescents dealing with multiple changes in all domains of their lives, effective coping with sufficient protective factors are especially important. For dealing with adolescent mental health, strengths based perspective provides another way-out and offers a set of principles that shape the lens for viewing human being in a very different way. It stresses an ecological system, the wholeness, integrity and individual’s subjective narrative experiences in assessment and intervention. During the process of encounter, understanding the client’s holistic functioning, helping them in instilling hopes, exploring and recognizing their strengths and cultivating the community resources in fighting against the adversity, negative mood and cognition are the major concerns in intervention rather than focus on the problems.

Keywords: Adolescent development; coping strategies; adolescent mental health; strengths based perspective; strengths
Mobility, Discipline, and Insecurity: Career Experiences of Youth in Hong Kong - Hon Chu LEUNG King Keung LAW Chi Kit KWAN
Department of Sociology, Hong Kong Baptist University
King Keung LAW
Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University
Chi Kit KWAN
School of Professional and Continuing Education, University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Young people in Hong Kong can face low-income employment and a high risk of unemployment even with a higher education. Obtaining a job and income security is a more urgent concern than mobility. Young people must live with hard self-discipline to cope with the problems they experience in their careers, but still hold aspirations of entering occupations with good prospects and opportunities to demonstrate their abilities. They are also willing to expend money and effort to obtain better qualifications. They are anxious that they cannot know for certain what they need to do at school and in their career to ensure that their résumés fit employers’ requirements. What must be considered is not only how to multiply high-status positions, but also how to improve the rewards for and security of lower-ranking positions, and how to offer young people clear career paths.

Keywords: mobility; employment insecurity; school-to-work transition; occupational career
Social Change and the New Generation - Victor ZHENG Po-san WAN
Victor ZHENG
Assistant Director, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Po-san WAN
Research Officer, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】The older generation appears to have had little problem adjusting to life in post-handover Hong Kong. It has been surprising, therefore, to observe that the new generation, who should feel at ease in this new era since they are not weighed down with the historical burden of living under colonial rule, are comparatively less satisfied with issues like government performance, social problems, economic development and environmental conservation – to the point that they even express nostalgia for the “good old days” of colonial rule. Why do they feel so strongly that life has got worse? Why do they show such a high level of concern for the society in which they live and about political development? Why have they developed such negative feelings towards the concept of national pride and about the integration of Hong Kong and Mainland China? Drawing on subjective and objective indicators, this paper shows how Hong Kong society has been transformed since the 1980s through improved living conditions, economic restructuring, a growing sense of belonging to Hong Kong, smaller families, more years of compulsory education, escalation of political conflict and technological developments, and how these factors have influenced the new generation’s lives, education and careers, and their attitude towards life.

Keywords: social change; social values; social attitudes; youth and society; public opinion
Cyberbullying Behaviour among Adolescents in Hong Kong: Preventing and Tacking Strategies - Dennis S. W. WONG Connie T. Y. AU YEUNG Sindy S. T. YEUNG Doris K. Y. YEUNG
Dennis S. W. WONG
Professor, Department of Applied Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong
Connie T. Y. AU YEUNG
Research Assistant, Department of Applied Social Sciences, City University of Hong Kong
Sindy S. T. LEE
Executive Director, Centre for Restoration of Human Relationships
Doris K. Y. YEUNG
Senior Project Officer, Centre for Restoration of Human Relationships

【Abstract】The paper utilizes a survey research approach to examine the prevalence, nature and characteristics of cyberbullying among adolescents in Hong Kong. Data from a sample of 2,314 adolescents were collected from ten secondary schools. A few psychometric measures, including feelings about a harmonious school, self-efficacy, empathy level and psychosocial well-being, were found to be associated with adolescents’ cyberbullying experiences. This paper further discusses effective strategies for preventing and tackling cyberbullying, and ways to construct a healthy culture for young people’s online behaviour.

Keywords: bullying; new media; adolescent; online behavior
The Growth of Migrant Youth in Hong Kong - Lai Shan SZE
Lai Shan SZE
Community Organizer, Society for Community Organization (SoCO)

【Abstract】Young people are seldom in the spotlight during discussion of new arrivals from the mainland. The public usually focuses on newly arrived children and women. Indeed, children and women represent the majority of immigrants from Mainland China. In the meantime, youngsters aged 15 or above comprise only one tenth of new immigrants. Although young people who migrated from China less than seven years ago account for less than 10% of youngsters in Hong Kong, the total numbers of migrant youth are far higher. Research and experiences on the front line show that new migrant youth encounter various difficulties. In this article, I shall investigate the trends and general situation of migrant youth in Hong Kong. Also, I shall discuss their difficulties and the kind of support they need.

Keywords: migrant youth from Mainland China; one-way permit
~Sharing Column~ Youth Mental Health: A Global Concern - Chun Pan TANG
Chun Pan TANG Chairman, Child and Adolescent Mental Health Community Support Project Management Committee

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: Educating Youth in Cultural Heritage Conservation

Cultural Heritage Conservation in Hong Kong: Experiences of the Conservancy Association Centre for Heritage (CACHe) - Kwok Wai LAU
Kwok Wai LAU
Executive Director, The Conservancy Association Centre for Heritage

【Abstract】The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) adopted the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in 2003. In response to the Convention, the Hong Kong SAR government placed great emphasis on the documentation, research, promotion and transmission of intangible cultural heritage (ICH). Later, in June 2014, the government announced the first Intangible Cultural Heritage Inventory of Hong Kong, which included 480 items in five domains of ICH. However, the government itself works mainly on the documentation and preservation of ICH. For the promotion and transmission of ICH, it depends largely on the efforts of non-governmental organizations (NGOs). This article uses the Conservancy Association Centre for Heritage (CACHe) as an example to illustrate the educational work being undertaken as part of cultural heritage conservation in Hong Kong.

Keywords: community cultural heritage conservation; heritage education; oral history
Heritage Conservation and Education Development in Macao—he Implications of the Chengdu WCH&WNH Marathon - Ka Meng WOUN
Vice Director of Legal Affairs, Macao Cultural Heritage Reinventing Studies Association

【Abstract】On 15 July 2005, with the full support of the People’s Republic of China, the historic centre of Macao was inscribed on the World Heritage List by UNESCO. It became the 31st listed world heritage site in China. We review heritage conservation and extension education in Macao, and provide several feasibility suggestions.

Keywords: historic centre of Macao; cultural heritage; synergy effects; sports and tourism; promotion and education
Development of a Rural Environmental Education Programme in Light of the Satoyama Initiative: A Case Study of Indigenous Youth Training Courses in Fon-Nan Village, Hualien, Taiwan - Kuang Chung LEE Ling Qi WANG Ying Ying CHEN Yu Yue LIN
Kuang-Chung LEE
Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources and Enviornmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University
Ling-Qi WANG Ying-Ying CHEN Yu-Yue LIN Guan-Ying CHEN
Master, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong-Hwa University

【Abstract】The study aims to analyse the development processes and outcomes of the basic, intermediate and advanced-level Pakalongay Interpreter Training Courses in Fon-nan Village, Hualien during the period 2012 to 2014. The Pakalongay Interpreter Training Courses were a series of community-based environmental education courses developed collaboratively by local people and the National Dong-Hwa University. Local elders developed the courses largely by themselves and acted as supervisors to teach local young people. The students were all local Amis indigenous youths and the aim of the courses was to help them to understand their cultural and natural environment, to learn traditional knowledge and some interpretation skills in order to introduce what this knowledge to tourists. In order to understand the related stakeholders, course development strategies, means of implementation, and issues and difficulties, this study employed qualitative data collection methods including participant observation, semi-structured interviews and several group discussions.

Keywords: youth education; community-based environmental education; Satoyama Initiative; cultural landscape; collaborative planning
Youth Work on Cultural Heritage Conservation in Guangzhou - Junhua SONG
Junhua SONG
Director of Institute of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage, Sun Yat-sen University

【Abstract】Cultural heritage conservation includes the protection of and education on both tangible and intangible cultural heritage. In recent years, the economy of Guangdong has seen dramatic growth, and changes in the city due to economic development may be lethal to cultural heritage conservation. In response to this problem, youth volunteers in Guangdong formed a ‘volunteer pattern’, which plays an important role in the conservation of cultural heritage. The features of this conservation pattern include: first, huge reliance on government administrative units; second, not limiting conservation to natural or tangible cultural heritage; third, focusing on short-term and single cultural heritage conservation cases; and fourth, emphasizing heritage promotion, education and tours. The conservation pattern at Guangdong involves youth volunteers working to achieve the diversity, sharing of culture and cultural participation advocated by UNESCO.

Keywords: Guangdong; youth; culture; heritage conservation; pattern

Professional Exchange

Experiences of Welfare, Family Relationships and Life Adaptation among Young People Leaving Residential Care for Home - Shu hua PONG Chung yi HU
Shu-hua PONG
Professor, Department of Social Work, Shih Chien University
Chung-yi HU
Professor, Department of Social Work, National Taipei University

【Abstract】The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of welfare, family relationships and life adaptation among young people leaving residential care to return home. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 65 patients. The results suggest that (1) social workers must emphasize the resilience and rehabilitation of family relationships; (2) residential care workers should promote leavers’ preparations; (3) government should establish a complete leaving care policy; (4) government should also enhance close collaboration with practitioners in the care system.

Keywords: family relationships; leaving care; life adaptation; residential placement
Poor Herdboys (Girls) and Cattle Post Work: A Veritable Pillar of Botswana’s Beef Industry? - N. M. TSELAESELE G. F. KOLEDOYE D. O. TORIMIRO O. T. ALAO T. TAOLO S. P. BALIYAN
Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone
Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Osun State University, Ejigbo Campus, Nigeria
Botswana University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Gaborone

【Abstract】This study analysed the involvement of herdboys in cattle-rearing activities in Kweneng district of Botswana with a view to understanding their perceptions towards the beef industry. It identified certain demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the herdboys, the cattle post activities in which they are involved, their perception of the reasons for their involvement and negative aspects of herding. A snowball sampling technique was used to select 195 herdboys from various cattle posts. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to elicit information from the respondents. Data were analysed using SPSS. About 96.9% are herdboys with the mean experience of 9.2±1.77 years and a mean monthly income of BWP484±10.82. About 42.0% had a secondary education. Herdboys were found to mostly perform non-technical activities such as mending kraals (Mean=3.81), water provision (Mean=3.14) and milking (Mean=3.10), while technical activities like breeding (Mean=0.12) and castration (Mean=0.11) were the least performed activities. Unemployment, poverty and poor family background were perceived as important reasons for herdboys’ involvement in cattle post activities. Overall, their perception of the reasons for their engagement was found to be negatively and significantly correlated (r=-0.214; p≤0.05) with their involvement in cattle posts. Low wages, lack of protective clothing, pests and diseases, insufficient water, poor living conditions and late remuneration, among others, were ranked as negative aspects of their work. In conclusion, while the traditional roles of herdboys have become a supportive pillar for the survival of the beef industry in Botswana, it is also imperative to enhance their socio-economic welfare.

Keywords: herdboys; cattle post; beef industry