Volume 3, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 5) Trends in Youth Development for the New Century

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2000

Volume 3 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 5


Feature: Trends in Youth Development for the New Century

Information Era, Knowledge Economy, Learning Society - CHENG Kai Ming
CHENG Kai Ming
Pro-Vice-Chancellor, The University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] With the invention of transistor-chips, the human kind has entered the era of information society. The economy is moving towards "knowledge-based" and workers are expected to be intellectual. With continuous and rapid changing knowledge, environments, clients and the market, everyone is engaged in lifelong learning. The development of technologies will also cause fundamental changes in human relations, and relations between individuals and the community. Individuals will be further empowered, while teamwork will also be further emphasised.
Economic Restructuring and Youth Employment Training - LO Wai Chung
LO Wai Chung
Economics Programme Leader, The School of Arts and Social Sciences, The Open University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Due to the structural change in the economy, nine years' basic education is not sufficient to prepare for smooth transition of the 16- to 19-year-old school leavers to employment in many OECD countries. Nor did the various programmes in vocational training in the last two decades succeed to lower their high unemployment rates. Hong Kong is currently experiencing difficulty in youth employment due to a similar structural change. This raises the issue that simply putting forward training programmes might fail to solve the problem. Further strategic insight is required of the policymakers.
The Impact of the "Infomedia Revolution" on the Youth in Hong Kong: Information Explosion and Information Confusion - Alice Y. L. LEE
Alice Y. L. LEE
Assistant Professor, Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] This article examines the impact of the new infomedia technologies on young people in Hong Kong and discusses how young people can maintain critical autonomy in such an information over-loaded society. This article argues that when information technology is merged with communication technology, there is a need for "Infomedia literacy" It is necessary to introduce "Infomedia literacy training" in schools to supplement IT education in order to help young people cope with the new technological environment.
Survival or Extinction: Youth Environmental Education Strategy into the Next Century - HUNG Wing Tat
HUNG Wing Tat
Director, The Conservancy Association

[Abstract] Human beings will face increasingly severe challenges in the 21st Century particularly with a larger population and less available resources. Environmental pollution will also worsen. If the under-developed and developing areas of the world continue to follow the same development patterns as in the developed areas, such as North America where per capita resource consumption tops the world, the earth's resources will soon be exhausted, resulting in the extinction of all ecology including mankind. Getting youth to recognize this situation and to react responsibility should be the priority of the youth environmental education strategy. This can best be done through providing chances for youth to participate in environmental issues so that they can feel, think and arrive at conclusions themselves.
The Moral Impact of Biotechnology and 21st Century Youth - King-tak IP
King-tak IP
Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Religion, Hong Kong Baptist University
Research Fellow, Centre for Applied Ethics, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] This essay is an attempt to look at the moral impact of biotechnology on the life of the coming generation in the 21st century. The author first explains the differences between traditional biotechnology and modern biotechnology. The four major techniques of modern biotechnology and their applications are introduced. They are, genetic engineering, tissue culture, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer, which are all fairly controversies. In order to face the challenges posed by modern biotechnology, 21st century youth need to prepare themselves to be morally mature. They need to be familiar with the methods of moral reasoning and to seek ways to develop character. In doing so, they would be able to make right choices and have the moral courage to actualize them. Moreover, they could better handle relationships with their fellow human beings and other life forms.
Religious Revival: The Rise of New Religious Movements and the Spiritual Life of Youth - KWAN Shiu Man, Simon LO Lung-kwong
KWAN Shiu Man, Simon
Assistant Professor, Theology Division, Chung Chi College, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
LO Lung-kwong
Head (Associate Professor), Theology Division, Chung Chi College, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Adolescence is a developmental stage that is very important to the psycho-social growth of individuals. It is the stage where identity is sought in the midst of many social factors. In the post-modern or postmodern society, new religious movements are growing apace, which some announce as a sign of religious revival. Is the speedy growth of new religious movements an indicator of religious revivals? What will the shape of adolescents seeking on identity be in the middle of the new religious conditions? The present effort tries to answer these questions, arguing that with respect to the accomplishment of the developmental task of identity-seeking, the upsurge of new religious movements is not good news.
The Politics of Power Transfer: Political Attitudes and Patterns of Political Participation of the Youth in Hong Kong toward the 21st Century - Timothy Ka-ying WONG
Timothy Ka-ying WONG
Research Officer, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] The 1997 handover signified a dual power transfer for Hong Kong: the change of its sovereignity from Britain to China and the replacement of British colonial rule by the SAR government composed of Hong Kong residents only. Such a transfer of dual power inevitably affects youth's political attitudes and patterns of political participation. During the several years before and after the handover, how have they felt about the politics of Hong Kong, the Chinese nation to which they were returned and Hong Kong-mainland relations? What are the characteristics their political participation has displayed? Has there been any change in the process? If yes, what kind of change? This article examines the above questions with an attempt to outline the major political attitudes and patterns of political participation of youth on the eve of the 21st century.
Women's Revolution: The Trend of Gender Equality and Changing Role of Female Youth in the 21st Century - Fanny CHEUNG
Professor, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Changes in the family structure, increases in the educational level and economic participation of women in the second half of the twentieth century have led to favourbale objective conditions for the rise of women's status in Hong Kong. However, objective and subjective barriers still impede the attainment of gender equality. This article reviews the process of women's struggle for equality in Hong Kong and previews gender roles and relationships in the twenty-first century.
Polarization between Wealth and Poverty: Poverty in Developed Societies - Thomas S. T. CHAN YU Lai Sheung
Thomas S. T. CHAN
Vice President At Large, World Vision International
YU Lai Sheung
Senior Researcher, World Vision Hong Kong

[Abstract] What is poverty? Societies with various levels of developement have different reference points. Using the salary standard of the members of a society as a reference point to define poverty is a kind of development of humanity's materialistic civilization. It coincides with the ideas of democracy, humanitarianism and equality that society esteems. The polarization between wealth and poverty in the developed societies has made the elderly, women and children more vulnerable. The trend of the descreasing age of the poor has caught the attention of many. Poverty originates from inequality. The remedy should not fully rely on the welfare system, instead there needs to be anti-poverty actions. For example, using every possible means to raise the education and professional skill levels of the poor of increasing their competitiveness and adaptability in the knowledge based economy of the information age.

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: Youth Development

Six Main Issues of Youth Development in Mainland China in the 21st Century - HUANG Zhi-jian
HUANG Zhi-jian
Vice-Director, China Youth Research Society
Professor, China Youth and Children Research Center

[Abstract] This article performs a background analysis on the development of youth in Inland China in the 21st century. Two trends are identified: implementing the overall target of the modernized construction of socialism in China; and the arrival of an era of Knowledge Economy in the world. The article further explores and forecasts trends of youth development in Inland China, focusing on six aspects: life-long education, the development of creativity, the era of internet, survival competition, life style, and the formation of personality.
A Study on the Night Life of Juveniles of Taipei City
Research Supervisor: Prof. CHUEH Hann-jong, Prof. Renn CHANG
Researcher: WU Chang-o, WANG Chi-tsen, TSENG Kuei-ling
Commission of Taipei Juvenile Guidance

[Abstract] Most juveniles with an active night life are sixteen years old and are junior high school graduates. Most of them understand the enactment of "Measure for Protecting Juveniles? while more than half of them do not support such measures. Generally speaking, these youth are satisfied with their family life. Juveniles often accompany friends of either sex to play billiards, frequent caf廥, stay at home watching TV or gossip. From our survey, these activities can be classified as follows. Boys like to play billiards, while girls like to stay at their boy friend's homes. Juveniles attending schools have more contacts with parents and teachers and they spend more time at home at night. The number of juveniles not attending school who are involved in an active night life, is higher than that of juveniles who do attend school. In general, juveniles do not like to be bound by any rules or regulations.
Aspirations of New Graduates of Tertiary Institutions in Singapore - CHOW Kit Boey Pascal PONG Anne YEO Vivien LIM
CHOW Kit Boey
Director, Centre for Business Research & Development, Faculty of Business Administration,National University of Singapore
Pascal PONG
Research Analyst, Centre for Business Research & Development, Faculty of Business Administration, National University of Singapore
Anne YEO
Research Analyst, Centre for Business Research & Development, Faculty of Business Administration,National University of Singapore
Vivien LIM
Senior Lecturer, Department of Organizational Behaviour, Faculty of Business Administration,National University of Singapore

[Abstract] The study seeks to identify the perceptions of new graduates from the six tertiary institutions in Singapore on the impact of the economic crisis on their aspirations and outlook on life. While male graduating students are more likely to have obtained a job before graduation, female graduating students tend not to be actively looking for jobs. Qualification is perceived to be the most important factor for getting a job, followed by attitude and working experience. Graduating students viewed good career prospects as the most attractive job factor. On average, graduating students are realistic and fairly optimistic about job prospects and have positive and balanced perspectives on work. The Asian crisis has also been a good reality check on the graduating students who have become more conscious about spending and are trying to save more for the future. Expected starting pay levels are lower. Nevertheless, the graduating students have not become overly pessimistic about the future.
The Challenges and Solutions to Macau Youth in the 21st Century - KOU Hoi In
KOU Hoi In
Presidente da Comissao de Juventude da Associacao Comercial de Macau
Deputado da Assembleia Legislativa Regiao Administrativa Especial de Macau

[Abstract] The return of sovereignty of Macau to China lies in between two centuries. At the same time, we are also facing great changes: the dawn of the knowledge economy, the globalized economy and the internet world. These changes are challenges to the active participants of the global economy. However they also mean difficulties if one does not possess the necessary knowledge and skills. The young generation should increase their education level and polish their working capacities in order to contribute to the realization of "one country, two systems" and "Macau people ruling Macau". The government should also play an active role in making a suitable and timely Youth Policy to face the next century.
Main Issues for the Development of Hong Kong Youth in the New Century - Eric K. C. LI
Eric K. C. LI
Chairman, Commission on Youth

[Abstract] The 21st Century is the century of Asia, the century of China, and the century of Hong Kong. However, the weak knowledge Hong Kong youth have on China will restrict the development of Hong Kong. Hong Kong youth should: (i) cultivate the habit of reading in order to raise their language standards and develop their imagination; (ii) be more all-rounded; (iii) participate in political and social affairs more frequently. By raising their own quality and competitiveness, they will be able to contribute to their country.

Professional Exchange

Idol Worshipping and Model Learning among Chinese Young People: A Comparative Study among Students in Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Changsha - YUE Xiao Dong Chau-Kiu CHEUNG
YUE Xiao Dong
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This paper discusses the distinction between idol degree and model degree in examining how young people in Chinese societies admire significant people in their lives. 456 university students from Hong Kong, Guangzhou and Changsha were polled regarding the people they most admire. Results indicate that idol degree is truly independent of model degree and that Hong Kong young people admired significantly more celebrities in entertainment industries, while Mainland young people admired significantly more celebrities in politics. Additionally, university students in all three cities listed parents and teachers among the people they most admired most admired people in their lives. To conclude, the authors propose that the celebrity or non-celebrity people admired by Chinese young people could be classified into four groups: pure idols, model-like idols, idol-like models and pure models.
Idolization Behavior of youth in Taiwan and its Social Implications - Yuwei WANNE Chi Ya CHANG
Associate Professor, Institute of Social Work, Tzu-chi College of Medicine and Humanities
Graduate Student, Institute of Social Work, Tzu-chi College of Medicine and Humanities

[Abstract] This paper examines the reasons and types of the idolization behavior of the youth in Taiwan and its social implications. Most youth studies focus on the anti-social behavior, such as drug addiction, unmarried pregnancy, and droping out. We try to analyze the transitions and conflicts of the youth and the context of society from healthy and positive perspectives. Interesting findings are identified and the meaning of idolization is helpful for youth in terms of self identity and recognition from their peers. Recommedations are made to society, teachers, helping professions and the mass media.
Raising Self-esteem of S1 Students: "Self-esteem" Super Camp and Workshops - MAK Yiu-kwong TSO Kai-lok
MAK Yiu-kwong
Buddhist Ho Nam Kam College
TSO Kai-lok
Buddhist Ho Nam Kam College

[Abstract] The aim of this study is to investigate the importance of self-esteem upon academic low achievers. In raising the self-esteem of the students, three major aspects are considered. They are: self-confidence, self-image and personal goal. The "Self-esteem" Super Camp, Workshops and Form-master periods are organized to build up the self-esteem of the students. Results of the study indicate that there is a positive effect on the academic aspect of the students. Moreover, the activities have a great impact upon the students, particular the Super Camp. In order to help those academic low achievers, the study suggests the importance of increasing self-esteem before adding pressure regrading their academic performance. Finally, this paper also makes some suggestions upon the activities of raising self-esteem.
Overview of Juvenile Studies in Macau - Penny Y. Y. CHAN
Penny Y. Y. CHAN
Chair, Executive Committee, The Macau Juvenile Delinquency Research Society
Associate Professor of Sociology, Macau Polytechnic Institute
Research Assistant: Nelson C. K. LEI
Student Member, The Macau Juvenile Delinquency Research Society
Student, Social Work Program, Macau Polytechnic Institute

[Abstract] This article reviews the current studies on juveniles in Macau which were carried out by the Department of Education and Youth of the Macau Government and the Macau Juvenile Delinquency Research Society. Since the last quarter of 1998, three juvenile poll surveys have been done. The first survey regards the moral and civil consciousness of youth in Macau, the second survey concerns how juveniles in Macau arrange their summer vacations, and the third survey relates to the conceptualization of marriage and the family. One other juvenile poll survey and juvenile problem in-depth study will be finished by the end of the year 1999. In the year 2000, the above organizations will continue to conduct more related surveys and in-depth studies.
Promoting the Economy of Macau and Cultivating Talents in Technology - LEI Meng Kei
LEI Meng Kei
Secretario da Associacao de Estudantes Chineses de Macau

[Abstract] Macau was greatly affected by the Asian Finanical Crisis with a depressed economy and worker unemployment. Opportunities for young people is also greatly reduced their minds become confused. According to the employment survey of 1998 graduates of the Association of Chinese Students of Macau, the rate of fresh graduates participating in the labour market was of a minimal. There were only 12.67% graduates employed before October. The situation is expected to become worse. How do we lead this army of unemployed youth? What is the future of the economic development of Macau? How do we cultivate talents to better adapt to the new century? How do we to find a way out of the adversity? These are the great problems faced by Macau, but this is also the chance for self-criticism leading to positive action.
Gender Equality Education in the Millenium - LEE Wai Yee YUEN Ka Wah, Clara
LEE Wai Yee
External Vice-Chair & Member of Anti-Sexual Assualt Group, Association for the Advancement of Feminism
YUEN Ka Wah, Clara
Internal Vice-Chair & Convenor of Anti-Sexual Assualt Group, Association for the Advancement of Feminism

[Abstract] In 1997, the Education Department issued the Sex Education Guidelines for schools, originally with the aim to promote comprehensive sex education. Unfortunately, the Education Department did not, in practice, implement the guidelines. Two years on, sex education in schools is virtually at a stand still. This article analyzes why and the role of the Education Department in the promotion of sex education. In the millenium, there ought to be indepth sex education, which is more interactive and with a gender perspective, what this article call Gender Equality Education.
Youth Empowerment and Disempowerment - CHAN Kam Ming
CHAN Kam Ming
Assistant Principal Programme Secretary, Chinese YMCA of Hong Kong

[Abstract] The concept of disempowerment is relative to the concept of empowerment. The phenomenon of persistent disempowerment is a process of repression on the development of social functions for an individual as well as a group in a long term. It can also be seen as a distortion of real communication. Real communication means sharing and exchanging ideas, feelings, opinions or information without prejudice or discrimination. The following contribute to individual disempowerment :culture or press, education, family, and development. These aspects contribute in different degrees coincidentally. For collective disempowerment, the process of identification, profundity, and consolidation of an interaction within the peer group about the sense of powerlessness for an individual is involved.