Volume 3, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 6) Youth Leadership Training and Development for the New Century

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2000

Volume 3 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 6

Feature: Youth Leadership Training and Development for the New Century

Leadership in the 21st Century: How Young People can Nurture Leadership Potential in the New Century - Edgar CHENG Wai-kin, JP
Edgar CHENG Wai-kin, JP
Head, Central Policy Unit, The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government

[Abstract] Nowadays, there are a lot of opportunities for young people to demonstrate their abilities in different industries. Although the number of such industries may not rise rapidly, their emphasis in quality has increased dramatically. To strive for opportunities, leaders of the new century should be creative and should have an attitude of lifelong learning to constantly broaden their knowledge. They should also possess a high standard of analytical skills and a powerful ability to express themselves. It is also imperative that they have a good understanding of their country. A holistic leader should look beyond him/herself and make a proper contribution to society by participating in the different kinds of social and public services in the so-called "Third Sector? leveraging his or her influence to help solve thorny social problems.
Leadership and Enterprise Management Ethics for the New Century - P. O. MAK
P. O. MAK (Interview)
Interviewer: Amy YUEN (Executive Editor, Journal of Youth Studies)

[Abstract] Globalization and technology development are the two trends leading enterprises into the 21st Century. Globalization increases regional commercial exchanges which blur out geographical boundary, may at the same time implies new challenges to management ethics. There are two components in management ethics: first, the law is to maintain a basic standard of commercial behaviour; second, that commercial organizations have to maintain their own culture and traditions. In the long term, a successful commercial leader should possess professional knowledge, as well as high ethical standards.
Developing World Class Business Leaders ─ A Strategic Priority for Hong Kong - Thomas K. LEUNG
Thomas K. LEUNG
Chairman, Vision in Business Consulting Limited

[Abstract] Today, successful business leaders should be able to manage well in the highly complex business environment, be able to handle paradoxes and be innovative. They have to possess the breadth of vision and the boldness to cut through a complex array of forces. To create a learning organisation is as important as to possess the humility to absorb new knowledge. To be respected as a leader of integrity, the individual must stand for, and stand by, certain values, which everyone in the organization can embrace. In addition, business leaders must connect these values with the ethical norms of the community in order to build trust. The success of a world-class business leader is also measured by how much the community has benefited from how he or she has done the job. If Hong Kong truly aspires to be amongst the elite as a world-class city, our foremost challenge would be to develop leaders of such quality.
The Success of a Leader under the Era of Globalization and Information Technology - James LIU
James LIU
President & CEO, Sino Technology Corp. Ltd.

[Abstract] The era of network globalization pushes human economic activities to a new climax. In such an era, the challenges and opportunities faced by youth leaders are unprecedented. Youth leaders must recognize the trends of this era, understand their own personalities, work earnestly and accumulate work experience, develop good communication skills and enhance their own working abilities. Only in this way can they succeed in the new era.
Youth Political Leadership Development under "Hong Kong People Ruling Hong Kong" - LAU Siu-kai
LAU Siu-kai (Interview)
Interviewer: Amy YUEN (Executive Editor, Journal of Youth Studies)

[Abstract] The political leadership of Hong Kong should possess a sublime moral standard in order to maintain the stability of this capitalist society. Other criteria include a cordial attitude, good persuasion skills and the ability to handle Hong Kong's ambivalent identity. The extrinsic environment of political leadership development exists in Hong Kong, but its political structure and history limit its development. The government and society should open different channels for potential leaders. It is also essential to provide a tolerating and caring environment to give birth to a new generation political leaders.
The Formation of Leaders in Party Politics: The Limitations in Hong Kong - Anthony B. L. CHEUNG
Anthony B. L. CHEUNG
Head and Associate Professor, Department of Public and Social Administration, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Politics involves the exercise of social power affecting the well-being of the whole community. Thus, political parties and politicians play a very important social role. However in Hong Kong, they are not receiving adequate respect. The poverty in political leaders is rooted in the lack of adequate institutional conditions to attract, nurture and retain political talent. The training of political leaders cannot be achieved merely through educational courses or theoretical instruction, but must be conducted in the context of political practice. At the same time, politicians should develop wide political visions, possess the spirit of entrepreneurs and be active in performing the functions of representation, policy advocacy and the articulation of values.
Leadership Training and Development in Tertiary Educational Institutes ─ An Overview - Luke S. K. WONG
Luke S. K. WONG
Director of Student Affairs, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

[Abstract] Universities have good achievements in the nurturing of leadership qualities and skills among students. They are rich in resources, have good government and community support, have highly motivated students, hardworking faculties and staff and follow educational methods and approaches that are responsive to rapid changes in society. Looking into the future, three key areas deserve particular attention. First, students?consciousness and sense of responsibility to family, society, nation and the world community should be strengthened. Second, it is necessary to develop new systems and methods in making good use of residential halls, to be provided to all universities, as means of achieving the purpose of a total education. Third, the pace of developing a new working culture that should accelerate cross among traditional professional, administrative, institutional and geographical boundaries.
Leadership Development in Secondary Schools by means of Student Unions and Student Activities - CHIU Wing Tak, Peter
CHIU Wing Tak, Peter
Vice-principle (Student Development), La Salle College

[Abstract] The article begins by posing the definitions of leadership as made by Warren Bennis, Stephen Covey and James O'Toole. It concludes that having vision, passion, integrity, trust, being adventure, willing to serve and able to work in teams are the characteristics of a good leader. It then proceeds to reveal the school's "Hidden agenda" on leadership training, its supporting environment and its working system. Finally, by applying four case studies, it analyses various means by which leaders are nurtured.
The Experience of Cross-Cultural Leadership Program Participation - Jonathan MOK
Jonathan MOK
Student Trainee, Tufts Institute for Leadership and International Perspective

[Abstract] Tufts University, in collaboration with Hong Kong University, Chinese University of Hong Kong, and Peking University, has created an intensive cross-cultural leadership program designed for students in their penultimate years. As more and more businesses and institutions interact across borders, the Tufts Institute for Leadership and International Perspective (TILIP) program recognizes the need to adapt to the changing global realities through its emphasis of cross-cultural leadership training in a practical business environment. Consisting of three phases, the first involves a six-week internship in a business or government institution in Hong Kong. The second and third phases of the program complements the students' practical experience with academic studies of the current developments in China and the Pacific Rim. Throughout the program, leadership training is accomplished through experiential learning.

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange:The Growth of Social Leaders in Pan-Chinese Societies for the New Century

The Growth of Mainland Chinese Youth Leaders in the New Century - LU Shi-zhen
LU Shi-zhen
Vice-President, China Youth College for Politics

[Abstract] Youth leaders of Mainland China are experiencing great changes in their growing environment. Social paradoxes and diversities within young people further deepens. Globalization of the world economy changes the status for survival. The moral standard of the society becomes more complicated. Youth leaders in the 21st century should support the core social values, grasp the dialectical youth theories, possess a good personality and morality, have a high level of education, and can master professional skills for youth work. Meanwhile, the ways of youth leadership development are changing correspondingly.
Youth Leadership Development of Taiwan for the Twenty-first Century - Ying-Chen CHANG
Ying-Chen CHANG
Associate Professor, Soochow University, Taipei

[Abstract] Government agencies providing youth services, voluntary organizations , professional, political, and religious circles are the main channels that operate youth leadership development programs. Among these five channels, only universities and business-based programs in the professional circle are well established. Leadership should be seen as an interaction process that leads to the future change for youth development of Taiwan in the twenty-first century. In the meantime, every young person should be treated as a potential leader. Youth leadership development programs, especially for women, Aborigines, people with low incomes, and people with disabilities, should be created.
Resettling and Housing Multi-Racial Communities: Challenges for the New Breed of Community Leaders in Singapore in the New Millennium - Ryal WUN
Ryal WUN
Lecturer, National Community Leadership Institute

[Abstract] The precipitated resettlement and housing of multi-racial Singaporeans into urban new towns, though necessary, has had an impact on family and neighbourly ties, minority interests and the psychological well-being of residents. This has also heightened the need for better communications between the people and the government. Government intervention was necessary to develop a system of community bodies to respond to and lessen the effects of resettlement and urban housing and continue to facilitate racial harmony and social cohesion within the community. As Singapore moves into the new millennium, there is a need for a new breed of social leaders to meet the evolving needs of the new generation of Singaporeans.
Macau Leaders for the New Century: The Importance of Knowledge and Social Services Experience to the Growth of the New Generation Leaders
Conselho dos Assuntos de Juventude da Uniao Geral das Associacoes dos Moradores de Macau

[Abstract] The Chinese Government resumed the exercise of sovereignty over Macau and put the policy of "One Country two Systems, Macau People Ruling Macau" into effect. Macau has to now consider the issue of youth leadership training. Service experiences in social organizations are very important to leadership training, in addition to professional knowledge. For instance, core members of Uniao Geral das Associacoes dos Moradores de Macau have been working for society since the 1960s. Many of these members have become social leaders in different fields. The government, social and commercial organizations have begun to pay close attention to youth leadership training. At the same time, youth should participate actively in social affairs as a kind of preparation.
Youth Leadership Training in Hong Kong: The Experience of Leadership 21 - MOK Hon Fai, James
MOK Hon Fai, James
Coordinator, Leadership 21, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

[Abstract] To enhance Hong Kong's overall competitiveness, to search for new areas of development, and to achieve sustainable economic development, we need a comprehensive and systematic plan to cultivate leadership in youth at early age. This is of great importance for laying a firm foundation for future leaders in Hong Kong, and bringing up a pool of local youth with a mission, in order to lead Hong Kong towards continuous development and progress in the 21st century. This article articulates the rationale of Leadership 21 in the nurturing of youth leaders in the new century, supported with a preliminary evaluation of fieldwork experience.

Professional Exchange

Hong Kong Adolescents’ Perceptions of Family Functioning: Research Findings based on the Family Assessment Device - Daniel T.L. SHEK
Daniel T.L. SHEK
Professor, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Adolescents' perceptions of family functioning and the related correlates are examined in this paper. A total of 3,649 Chinese adolescents responded to the Chinese version of the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results showed that while adolescents in general had positive perceptions of their family functioning, a significant proportion of the participants indicated that: (1) family members lacked communication; (2) family members lacked mutual understanding; (3) family members lacked emotional responsiveness; (4) family members failed to fulfil their family responsibilities; (5) family rules were not clear; and (6) the distribution of family tasks was not fair. Based on the total scores of the Chinese FAD, results showed that adolescents' perceptions of family functioning were related to several correlates. The findings are: (1) adolescent boys had relatively more negative perceptions of family functioning than adolescent girls; (2) relative to younger adolescents, older adolescents had poorer perceptions of family functioning; (3) adolescents studying in higher grades had relatively poorer perceptions of family functioning; (4) adolescents studying in schools admitting students with higher academic abilities had relatively better perceptions of family functioning; (5) students studying in private schools had relatively poorer perceptions of family functioning than those studying in government and aided schools; (6) adolescents from intact families had better perceptions of family functioning than adolescents from non-intact families. The findings arising from the present study suggest that there is a need to strengthen family life education for early adolescents and their parents.
The Analysis of Youth's Perception and Feeling to Family Life in Taiwan - Jing-Houng KUO Hwa-Yuan TSENG Ying-Yi TANG WU Hisn-Lin
Jing-Houng KUO
Professor and chairman, Department of Social Welfare, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
Hwa-Yuan TSENG
Professor, Department of Social Work, Tung-Hai University
Ying-Yi TANG
Associate professor and chairman, Department of Mass Media, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan
WU Hisn-Lin
Instructor, Department of Social Welfare, Chinese Culture University, Taiwan

[Abstract] Adolescence is a transitional period between childhood and adulthood. During this changing period, the adolescent tries to break off the protection and constraints from adults on the one hand, while still tied to his/her parents for economic and emotional support on the other hand. The subtleness of an approach to avoid-conflict ascribes the major interaction between parents and children in this period. This study aims to examine (1) What is the adolescent’s family experience and feeling? (2) How does the adolescent view the parenting style in his/her family? (3) How does the family manage conflicts among its members and how does the adolescent feel about the management? (4) How does the adolescent adjust to his/her family experience?The population of this study is the adolescent between the ages of 12 and 18 in Taiwan. A stratified sampling process has randomly selected 3500 adolescents aged between 12 and 18 prior to December 31, 1998 to be surveyed. The final valid sample is 2,176 with the valid percentage of 62.17%.
An Exploratory Study of School Social Work and Counselling Practices in Singapore Secondary Schools ─ Implications for Schools and Practitioners - Adrian LIM Peng Ann
Adrian LIM Peng Ann
School Counsellor, St Joseph's Institution

[Abstract] This study seeks to find out five hypothetical practice models against five proposed practice dimensions of school social work and counselling services provided by social workers and counsellors in Singapore's secondary schools. From a preliminary survey covering 92(62.6%) of all 147 secondary schools, the majority (47.2%) surveyed utilised practitioners from family service centres(FSC) on a part-time basis. The structured interview had 38 practitioners explore how their professional services were practised in 50(34%) secondary schools. Issues of service induction, role clarity, practice visibility, practice support, accountability, strengths and limitations were covered to see how the practice is promoted, maintained or impeded service delivery. The results of the interviews supported the existence of the proposed five practice models, with implications and recommendations proposed for training for practitioners, social service organisations, and educational policy makers. The researcher foresees greater usage of these services and the need for expertise to be consolidated and developed in the face of an increasingly challenging social climate, competitive economic and educational system in Singapore.
Religious Bonds, Values and Minor Delinquency among Young People in Hong Kong - Dennis S. W. WONG Christopher CHENG
Dennis S. W. WONG
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong
Christopher CHENG
Lecturer, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This paper examines the dynamic relationship between religious bonds, values and minor delinquent behavior among young people. Based on Social Control Theory, the study assumes that deviance is inherent in human nature, requiring no special motivation. It is also hypothesized that strong religious bonds can restrain youth from violating social norms. Youth with weak bonds to religion are likely to possess less positive values and be involved in minor delinquency. From a sample of 1,761 young churchgoers randomly selected from 62 churches, the study finds positive relationship between religious bonds and moral values, as well as general self-esteem. The study also confirms that youth with higher level of religious bonding are less prone to deviate from social norms. This paper suggests that further study should be conducted to test the relationship of religious factors and deviant behavior with a wider spectrum of samples.
Selection and Admiration of Four Kinds of Idols and Models among Young People: A Comparative Study among High School Students in Hong Kong, Nanjing, Changsha and Nantong - YUE Xiao Dong
YUE Xiao Dong
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] The present study, using a sample of 763 high school students selected from Hong Kong, Nanjing, Changsha and Nantong, validated the hypothesized existence of four kinds of idols and models for adolescents to identify with. Specifically, pure idols mainly consist of pop stars in entertainment and sports, model-like idols mainly consist of celebrities in the political, academic, literary, business and entertainment arenas, model-like idols and pure models mainly consist non-celebrities close to adolescents. The selection and admiration of these different people reflect different social and psychological needs in adolescents.
Strategic Research on the Value and Effectiveness of Summer Youth Program - NGAI Ngan-pun Chau-kiu CHEUNG
NGAI Ngan-pun
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Chau-kiu CHEUNG
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] The study surveyed 170 members of the Summer Youth Program Committees at both the central and district levels and collected 3,671 valid questionnaires from young people at the beginning and end of the summer of 1998. The results demonstrate the significant contributions of the Summer Youth Program on all 12 developmental outcomes: youth's interests, potential recognition, orientation to recreation, skills, social well-being, concern for the community, civic responsibility, desire for volunteering, learn to view society critically, identity achievement, transcendence, and endorsement of the Hong Kong Jockey Club's contributions. The significant effects largely stem from the effects of past and cumulative participation in the Summer Youth Programs. The research also finds the Committee Members’ favorable evaluation of the Summer Youth Program at satisfying youths' needs, and offers useful implications for future Summer Youth Program.
That's not all: Textualising Youth Work - Wallace, SHIU Ka Chun
Wallace, SHIU Ka Chun
Youth Social Worker, Tsuen Wan Integrated Youth Service Centre, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups
M. Phil. Candidate, Social Work Department, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] What does postmodern theory offer in shaping directions for youth work practice? This article attempts to define and develop a new discourse theory and practice in youth work. Youth work can be located within modernity. This means that youth work is characterized by an emphasis on rationality and scientific knowledge. It has involved dichotomies, for example, reason/emotion, therapy/change, cause/function, theory/practice. Informed by postmodernism and poststructurialism, it involved (1) a shift and moving beyond the notion of dichotomies; (2) questioned the notion of rigid disciplinary boundaries; (3) shift emphasis and explore the unique, the local and the everyday. This article is devoted discussing the philosophy, concepts and theoretical underpinnings of textualing youth work, so as to shed light on: (1) deconstructing traditional youth work; (2) critical youth work as a counter discourse; (3) towards textualising youth work practice in the local context of Hong Kong.
Educating the Youth with Leadership Abilities in this New Century - LEI Meng Kei
LEI Meng Kei
Secretario da Associacao de Estudantes Chineses de Macau

[Abstract] Nowadays, it is essential to educate youth with leadership abilities, since they are the future of the society. Youth Leaders should inherit our excellent tradition as well as develop a creative mind. We should pay attention to the characteristics of different eras, and provide suitable diversified education accordingly. Therefore, youth should establish a modern enterprise view. They should be sensitive, possess an entrepreneur’s spirit and courage, a creative mind and a rightful character.