Volume 4, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 8) The Spirit of Volunteering — Role of the Third Sector

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2001

Volume 4 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 8

Feature: The Spirit of Volunteering -- Role of the Third Sector

Dimensions of the Third Sector: Comparative Perspectives on Structure and Change - Helmut ANHEIER
Director, Centre for Civil Society London School of Economics

[Abstract] Cross-nationally, the introduction of New Public Management coincides with a significant growth phase of the nonprofit or third sector. This growth has disproportionately been an expansion of the economic dimensions (employment, turnover) and basically involved the greater use of third sector organisations as service providers. Such provision uses complex contract regimes, and typically takes place in some form of public-private partnership with either public or private funding agencies. Other parts of the third sector such as membership, volunteering and giving have generally grown less. The paper suggests that the sector is becoming qualitatively different, although the nature and strength of this change depends on the nonprofit regime type in a given country. Generally, however, third sector growth has led to differentiation processes that involve new organisational forms, and changes in activities and overall composition. The paper explores the measurement aspects of the quantitative-qualitative jump in third sector development by trying to “map” changes in core facts or dimensions over time. In closing, the paper suggests to examine recombination and refunctionality processes in the third sector.
Social Functions of the Third Sector: Concepts and Perspectives - Terence YUEN Darwin CHEN
Terence YUEN
Researcher, The Third Sector Research Project
Darwin CHEN
Vice President for Asia, United Way International

[Abstract] The purpose of this article is to draw attention to, and arouse the interest of local academics and practitioners in the third sector on, the roles and social functions of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), in particular its contributions to effective public governance. The article is divided into two main parts: first, an examination of the different theories and concepts of the third sector, and a description of two theoretical models devised to explain the relationship between governments and NGOs; second, consideration of the related notion of “public governance,” with a brief analysis of the contributions of the third sector to effective public governance, as well as the applicability of this concept to the context of Hong Kong. Finally, an agenda for future research study is proposed for the reference of academics, government officials and NGO practitioners.
Levels of Participation and Promotion of Volunteering Around the World - Susan K.E. SAXON-HARROLD
Vice President for Research, Independent Sector

[Abstract] The nature of volunteering in different countries depends on the economic, social and political make-up of the country and its stage of development. Despite the differences, volunteering brings benefits to both at large society and the individual volunteer. However, the forces of globalization are restricting the civic involvement among young people, and thus determine the future decline of volunteering. Aging is another trend that increases the burden on volunteer care services on the one hand, but opens up new opportunities for voluntary work among active seniors on the other. The spread of the Internet also opens up new opportunities for home-base involvement in volunteering. Theories of market or government failure in the United States (Salamon and Anheier, 1998) have also raised public concern that government might be tempted to cut back on public spending in the knowledge that volunteers will step in to fill any gaps left by the withdrawal of business or the state. Nevertheless, increasing interest by the private sector in volunteering in recent years has raised awareness of the value of volunteering as part of a broader community investment strategy, and as a means of staff development (Davis Smith, 1999). On the basis of current research and practice around the world, governments, nonprofits and the private sector could act together to stimulate volunteering by: viewing volunteering as a strategic activity in society; increasing public awareness as to the value of volunteering; promoting youth volunteering; establishing an enabling legal and fiscal environment; promoting private sector support to encourage employees to volunteer; and influencing international organizations by raising issues associated with volunteering for discussion and action.
The Rise and Decline of the Third Sector: Lessons from Hong Kong - Nelson W.S. CHOW
Nelson W.S. CHOW
Chair Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] The article discusses the definition of the Third Sector, as well as its functions and mission. Especially highlighted are its divergence from Governmental and Commercial sectors and its role in meeting the needs of the people based on this difference. The article also assesses the development of the Third Sector with special reference to Hong Kong and determines the need for greater sensitivity and sacrifice on the part of the community. It stresses the efforts of individuals in their concern for the welfare of others as a major incentive for the development of the Third Sector.
The Third Sector and the Development of Youth Volunteerism in Hong Kong - Rosanna WONG Yick-ming
Rosanna WONG Yick-ming
Executive Director, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

[Abstract] This article briefly narrates the current situation of the Third Sector in Hong Kong. It further explores the contributions of the Third Sector to society at large and discusses some of the concerns that its expansion may cause. The author stresses that the spirit of volunteering is one of the crucial characteristics of the Third Sector and she shares the experience of the launch in 1998 of the Youth Volunteer Network (VNET) - a youth volunteer scheme initiated by the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups - as an illustration of this point. She also explains that VNET has a five-level award scheme, which is a positive step in recognizing and accrediting volunteering among youth. The author further states that the promotion of youth volunteerism can play a significant role in the nurturing of young people to create a caring and harmonious community in the long run.
International Year of Volunteers 2001──Youth Volunteerism in the New Millennium - Carrie LAM
Carrie LAM
Director of Social Welfare
Chairperson, Steering Committee on Volunteer Movement

[Abstract] According to “Volunteering Worldwide”, a newly published document by the International Association of Volunteer Efforts, about 20% to 30% of the population in the western world participates in volunteer services. By comparison, it is estimated that only 3% to 4% of people in Hong Kong take part in volunteering, indicating that there is clearly room for improvement. As a result, The Volunteer Movement was launched with this goal in mind. In promoting volunteerism across all sectors, it is observed that 190,000 volunteers registered with the Social Welfare Department, of which 44% are between the ages of 13 and 25. This is encouraging, but the figure still constitutes only 5% of the total youth population of 1.5 million in Hong Kong. There is a need to encourage more young people to participate and commit to volunteer work in order to serve the community. To facilitate an increased participation, it is necessary to formulate a future work direction on youth volunteering in which focus will be placed on enhancing youth’s understanding of the meaning of volunteering, as well as providing varied and lively opportunities for young people to experience the joys and benefits of volunteering. As young people are the future, the promotion of volunteerism among this sector will ensure long-term benefits, not only in terms of volunteering efforts, but also in laying a solid foundation for a caring society.
Sharing of Experiences
> Flexible and Effective Services by Adolescents - John Wan
> International Volunteering : An Invaluable Bond in our Global Community - Olivier BONNET
> The Voluntary Services of the Hong Kong Federation of Women - Peggy LAM
> Racing for Charity - David YAU
> The Spirit of Volunteering : Active Participation - Spencer LI
> Giving and Volunteering - An Electricity Safety Programme for the Elderly - WONG Ching Ngok
> Building Community through Social Responsibility - Citibank Community Services Team
> The Spirit of Johnathan Livingston Seagull - Shui On Seagull Club
> Volunteering Nurtures Social Participation - Claudia MA

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: International Year of Volunteers 2001--Service Development in Volunteerism

The Development of Voluntary Services in Mainland China - LU Yong-zheng
LU Yong-zheng
Associate Secretary General, Chinese Young Volunteers Association

[Abstract] Voluntary services in Mainland China were launched together with the development of a market economy. After seven years of operation, a fairly complete organizational network has been built up, which consists of Young Volunteer Associations at various levels, as well as Young Volunteers Service Centres, Stations and Groups in the community. All these initiatives help carry out a series of long-term service programs, such as Young Volunteers Poverty Alleviation Relay Program, “One Help One” Partnership Service Program, Green Action Program, as well as programs which provide services for large scale events in the fields of poverty alleviation, community construction and environmental protection. They have also mobilized a large number of volunteers, who are made up of people from all walks of life, with young people as the main force, bringing about a positive influence in society. Now, efforts are being made to further enhance the construction of organizational, project and team development according to the guideline of “focusing on development, emphasizing in construction” and the work pattern of “supported by the government, sponsored by volunteers organizations and operated in a socialized manner” is gradually created.
The Development of Volunteer Services in Taiwan - CHEN Wu-hsiung
CHEN Wu-hsiung
Chief Executive Officer, China Volunteer Service Development Center

[Abstract] Volunteer services provide for the public interest of society. Since 1982, the Government of Taiwan has been involved in the planning of volunteer services by setting up different schemes and initiatives. In January this year, the start of the International Year of Volunteers 2001, the Government announced the Volunteer Service Ordinance in order to integrate and promote volunteer services. However, difficulties remain in the spread of volunteer services, which include lapses in knowledge, a lack of manpower and problems in organization, finances, systems and policy. The future development of volunteer services needs to make a greater effort in education and training. Furthermore, there needs to be an expansion of rewards, as well as the setting up of service networks, creating a service culture, implementing regulations and policies and establishing sound systems.
The Development of Volunteerism in Singapore - Gerard EE
Gerard EE
Chairman, National Volunteer Centre, Singapore

[Abstract] The paper outlines the history of volunteerism since 1986 when Singapore celebrated its first Volunteers Day. It traces how Singapore’s volunteering pattern has evolved from serving communal interests in the early days to one which is related to national priorities today, and how the various ethnic and non-ethnic groups have played a significant role in promoting volunteerism amongst the people, with some help from the government along the way. Within a few decades, Singapore’s socio-economic profile has changed from that of an undeveloped to a developed country. In the area of volunteer participation, however, Singapore still fares relatively poorly compared with the economically advanced countries. The government also recognises the need, with rapid globalisation, the growth of the Internet and the new economy, to direct more resources towards building the heartware of a nation. All these provided the impetus for the establishment of the National Volunteer Centre in 1999 to promote volunteerism as its mission, across all sectors, and to all levels of society. As the national co-ordinating body, NVC will be the growth engine for the development of volunteerism in Singapore going into the new millennium.
The Development of Volunteer Services in Macau - Mario Gomes CHAU
Mario Gomes CHAU
Vice-President, Association of Volunteers Social Service of Macau

[Abstract] Informal volunteer services were delivered by catholic missionaries in the early days. Large-scale social welfare agencies established by enthusiastic people also provided voluntary assistance to victims of natural disasters thereafter. Not until the late 70’s, well-organized service agencies with modern volunteer service characteristics appeared. In the 80’s, although volunteer services extend to mental care, they were still provided by non-profit making organizations. Association of Volunteers Social Service of Macau was set up in 1986 which aims to promote volunteer services. In future, the association will develop in multi-directions, including the promotion of volunteer service, training in different aspects, and the setting up of a database and a resource center.
The Development of Volunteer Services──The Experience of the Agency for Volunteer Service of Hong Kong - LEE Jark Pui
LEE Jark Pui
Chairman, International Year of Volunteers 2001 Steering Committee
Chairman, Agency for Volunteer Service

[Abstract] There has been a gradual transformation in the development of volunteer services in meeting the changes of society and the diverse needs of service recipients in Hong Kong. The Agency for Volunteer Service (AVS) established in 1970, pioneered a broad spectrum of activities advocating volunteerism in the face of many challenges. These include the promotion and education of volunteerism, management and development of volunteer resources, the coordination of demand and supply on services and the promotion of volunteer service policies. In the future, the Universal Declaration on Volunteering and the Global Agenda for Action as declared by the International Association for Volunteer Effort (IAVE), could act as a reference guide for the further development of volunteer services in Hong Kong.

Professional Exchange

A Study on Hong Kong Youth Values - LEE Wing On
LEE Wing On
Dean, School of Foundations in Education, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

[Abstract] There seems to be a common view that the youth of today do not live up to the expectations of the older generation. It is assumed, for example, that youth are less responsible, less concerned about public interests and social services, and have an insufficient knowledge about social and political affairs. It is further believed that youth are more materialistic and hedonistic, self-oriented, short-sighted, and have a liberal attitude towards marriage and sex. With all these assumptions, the author will attempt an analysis on values by studying various youth reports published in the 1990s. Surprisingly, data and analyses from these reports do not support the common negative perceptions on youth. In contrast, many positive values can be found in relation to their attitudes towards family, work, education and friendship. This paper, therefore, argues for the need to develop a different attitude towards Hong Kong’s youth.
Double-faced e-people: The Impact of the Internet on the Youth Psychology and Behaviour - ZUO Bin
Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education Sciences, Central China Normal University

[Abstract] The Internet has attracted a great deal of attention and is very popular among young people. Previous researchers have been mostly concerned with the economic and technological aspects of the Net. However, it is more important to assess the Internet’s effect on the psychology and behavioural style of youth in daily life. Based on an investigation into youth behaviour on the Internet, their psychological adaptation and development, including physical health, feelings, morals and values, mental health and thinking, will be explored in this paper.
Romantic Relationships of Hong Kong Youngsters - Tiger C. F. CHAN
Tiger C. F. CHAN
Researcher, Breakthrough

[Abstract] Recent research on the romantic relationships of young people indicates the strong influence of feeling and passion. Furthermore, few youth are able to develop good communication skills or, sharing and support with their partners. Based on these research findings, this paper tries to provide a clear and detailed analysis on how Hong Kong youngsters act within their romantic liaisons. Also discussed are the issues of trouble and conflict within the relationship.
Summary Report of an Explorative Study on Patterns and Attitudes of Amusement for the Youth of Shatin in Shenzhen - CHAN Kam Ming
CHAN Kam Ming
Convener of Youth Studies Working Group
Assistant Principal Programme Secretary, Shatin Outreaching Social Work Team, Chinese YMCA of Hong Kong

[Abstract] In response to the increasing interaction between Shenzhen and Hong Kong, as well as the comparatively lower prices of goods and commodities, Hong Kong youth from lower income brackets have been attracted to Shenzhen as a place to find affordable amusement. However, such forms of amusements have their own implicit risks and hazards. It is now understood that such a phenomena can be seen as a progressive trend. Since there have been no holistic studies on such a topic, the study team pioneered explorative research in order to determine the general patterns, attitudes and hazards of such amusement within a period from April and May, 2000. In spite of limited resources and restrictions at the district level, the study was still able to provide an indicative analysis on this relevant topic. It is hoped that this study will enhance the understanding of the authorities concerned, parents, teachers and youth workers, which in turn can provide corresponding reactions to such phenomenon.
An Analysis of the Present Features of Adolescents Crime Committing Behavior and its Counter Measures - SHEN Ya-Ping
SHEN Ya-Ping
Post-graduate student, Zhe Jiang Normal University

[Abstract] It is of vital importance to study the features and reasons for adolescents to commit crimes in order to prevent such crimes efficiently. Proceeding from the present situation, this paper analyses objective factors, especially those related to family, school and society which influence the behavior of adolescents. It further suggests some relevant measures to halt this kind of behavior.
Suggestions about Enhancing Self-protection Education among Minors - Chunshan ZHONG Yang WANG
Chunshan ZHONG
Beijing Minor Protection Commission Office
Beijing Teenagers Legal and Psychological Consultation Center

[Abstract] The security and self-protection of minors is a global issue. In recent years, in China, the cases of minors as victims are on the increase, as is the growing numbers of criminals of a younger age. Research and data have indicated that a main cause of minors being victims is a result of a lack of awareness on issues of security and self-protection. Minors must be protected by vigorously developing and enhancing their education on security and self-protection issues based on their psychological and cognitive characteristics.