Journal of Youth Studies

July 2010

Volume 13 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 26


Feature : Youth Work for the i-generation

Youth Information Literacy in an Information Age - William K. W. TANG Wai Tak WU Fong Lok LEE
William K. W. TANG
Part-time Lecturer, Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Wai Tak WU
Part-time Lecturer, Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Fong Lok LEE
Director of Centre for the Advancement of Information Technology in Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] In an information society, youth obtain web information easily. However, they may not understand how to effectively locate, critically evaluate and ethically use the information. This may lead to obstructed learning and may cause serious social problems. This article discusses the context and methods to promote information literacy.
[Keywords] information literacy; Information Age; information society; youth
Youth and the Internet in East Asia - Tai-Quan PENG Jonathan J. H. ZHU
Tai-Quan PENG
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities and Arts, Macau University of Science and Technology
Jonathan J. H. ZHU
Professor, Department of Media and Communication, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] Based on survey data collected in Hong Kong and other economies of East Asia, this paper examines youth’s access to and use of the Internet and potential consequences of Internet use on youth in the region. The paper compares Internet use by Hong Kong youth with their peers in neighboring economies to help highlight the unique features as well as common practices of Hong Kong youth. The findings, though by no means representative of Asia, provide a set of consistent and reliable benchmarks against which other parts of Asia and beyond could be compared in the future.
Keywords: youth; Internet adoption and usage; Internet effects; Hong Kong; East Asia
The Phenomenon of Cyberbullying: Its Aetiology and Intervention - Annis L. C. FUNG
Annis L. C. FUNG
Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This study preliminarily investigated the phenomenon of cyberbullying in Hong Kong. From a pool of 7,654 students, 48 Primary 4 to Form 3 students who were assessed as potential aggressors participated in the study. The purpose was to understand the frequency of cyberbullying behaviours and the relationship between cyberbullying and two types of aggression-proactive and reactive aggression. Results indicated that more cyberbullying behaviours were exhibited among secondary school students than among primary school students, with common practices including name calling, teasing, and gossiping. Emotional ventilation was regarded as the major reason for cyberbullying; for example, revenge was a form of reactive aggression and showing off a form of proactive aggression.
Keywords: cyberbullying; proactive aggression; reactive aggression
Click, Observe, and Listen to the Calls, Links, and Interactions of the Gen-i in the Digital Forest: Taking the Narrative Analysis of the Film Avatar as a Scaffolding of Reflection - Toby C. Y. YIP
Toby C. Y. YIP
Youth Counseling Project Supervisor (Master of Social Sciences), Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] Taking the narrative approach used both in media studies and youth work/counselling, this article aims to help readers listen to, observe, and gain an understanding of Internet culture as well as of the communication and interaction patterns of young people in the digital age. On the one hand, this paper demonstrates how to analyze and reconstruct the narrative of a popular text, Avatar, in order to develop new understandings of the Gen-i in the context of everyday life. On the other hand, by means of the metaphors derived from this popular text, the paper seeks to engage the “pre-Gen-I” readers in pedagogic reflection on how we live with the Gen-i as parents, teachers, and youth workers and counsellors.
Keywords: Internet culture; online game culture; social media and networking; narrative analysis and pedagogic reflection
Family Media Education for the Net Generation - Alice Y. L. LEE
Alice Y. L. LEE
Associate Professor, Department of Journalism, Hong Kong Baptist University
Vice-chairperson, Hong Kong Association of Media Education

[Abstract] In the Web 2.0 age, young people are growing up digital and the Internet has become an essential part of their lives. This paper discusses the importance of family media education in this new age. It has three objectives: (1) To analyze the characteristics and media use of the Net Generation; (2) To explore the role of parents in their online activities; (3) To put forward a family media education model "ARTICLE" for the Internet age. The model includes components of attitude, replacement, timetable, information, family communication, family online linkage and media ethics.
Keywords: Web 2.0; net generation; generation N; family media education
Challenges and Needs Ahead: Youth Counselling Services in the Information Age - Siu Man HSU
Siu Man HSU
Supervisor (Counselling Services), The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

[Abstract] The communication pattern of youngsters has been changing in the information age, and so has the delivery mode of youth counselling services. Since the young generation’s usage of Internet activities has become increasingly high, online counselling has became a new mode of service in which mood and emotion can be instantly released via text and symbol communication. This article outlines the development of counselling services in The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups. It also portrays the challenges and needs faced by youth counselling services as well as the model and experiences of online counselling in this era.
Keywords: youth counselling services; online counselling; online outreach
Youth Internet Addiction: The Importance of Preventive Education - Sandy Y. L. CHENG Alice W. S. KO
Sandy Y. L. CHENG
Social Worker, Tung Wah Group of Hospitals School Social Work Service: Say No to Cyber Addiction Project
Alice W. S. KO
Supervisor, Tung Wah Group of Hospitals School Social Work Service

[Abstract] Youth Internet addiction has become a common problem among youth in Hong Kong. The authors explore Asian countries’ strategies for handling youth Internet addiction and its contributing factors. They advocate preventive education as the most essential element to prevent youth Internet addiction.
Keywords: Internet addiction; youth

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange:Moral Development for Young People

Moral Education for Young People in Singapore: Philosophy, Policy and Prospects - Charlene TAN Yew-Leong WONG
Charlene TAN
Associate Professor, Policy and Leadership Studies Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Yew-Leong WONG
Teaching Fellow, Policy and Leadership Studies Academic Group, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

[Abstract] Moral education in Singapore is underpinned by a communitarian ideology that emphasises the centrality of the community and the importance of social harmony. We explain how this communitarian philosophy is promoted through the subjects “Civics and Moral Education”(in primary and secondary schools) and “Civics”(in pre-university institutions), and show that this emphasis has inadvertently resulted in a neglect of the personal moral development of young people in Singapore. We maintain that more needs to be done to encourage young people to critically reflect on, construct, internalise and apply their own moral values both in and beyond the classroom. In the final section of the article, we explore the prospects for doing this in a way that is consistent with a communitarian outlook.
Keywords: moral education; communitarianism; personal moral development
Moral Development of Youth in Hong Kong: Towards a Model of Immersion through Corporate Citizenship --An Advanced Model of Corporate Social Responsibility - King Chee PANG
King Chee PANG
Former Chairman, Committee on the Promotion of Civic Education

[Abstract] Based on the emerging experiences of the Committee on the Promotion of Civic Education, this paper advocates an effective model of values development for youths in their post-school stage, through encouraging companies and corporations to take on an advanced form of Corporate Social Responsibility called Corporate Citizenship that also has an internal values development role, apart from the usual external contributions role. Moral education inside and beyond schools for youth in Hong Kong is also presented as background to this development for the benefit of overseas readers.
Keywords: moral development; corporate citizen; corporate social responsibility; values education; civic education
Issues of Virtue Education in Taiwan - Jau-wei DAN
Jau-wei DAN
Department of Education, Taipei Municipal University of Education

[Abstract] There has been an increasing interest in moral education in Taiwan. Most notably, a project for promoting virtue education was initiated by the Taiwan government in 2009. This essay first sketches the social and historical background of this project. It then spells out two problems embedded in the formation of this endeavor, namely, that the virtues promoted are inappropriately selected and ambiguous for school teachers. It is suggested that the project is bound to fail if these two problems are not properly addressed. Finally, the author makes two suggestions concerning how moral education in general could be conducted in school.
Key words: moral education; virtue education; core value
Youth Moral Education in Mainland China: Theoretical Innovation and Practical Advancement - Jingduo LIU
Jingduo LIU
Professor and PhD Supervisor, China National Institute for Educational Research

[Abstract] The new trend in youth moral education in mainland China is to focus on moral values education and its effectiveness. It aims to be human-oriented and to enrich the lives of both teachers and students. In practice, this means moral education should emphasize effectiveness and healthy personality, taking the new forms of getting thoroughly immersed, experiencing and feeling, as well as getting involved in a group. Contemporary youth moral education is shown to be practical, dialog-based, sharing and nurturing. Through an experiential learning process, it creates a value-driven and thought-provoking eco-experience which should be far better than tedious spoon-fed education, and hence make moral education more appealing.
Keywords: mainland China; youth moral education; moral education with eco-experience; moral education effectiveness; attractive practice style
Rules and Outcomes -- An Examination of Moral Education in Primary and Secondary School Regulations in Macao - Sou Kuan VONG Juan WU
Sou Kuan VONG
Associate Professor and Educational Research Centre Director, Faculty of Education, University of Macau
Juan WU
Doctoral Student, Faculty of Education, University of Macau

[Abstract] School regulation which assumes both normative and educating functions must be scrutinized under the lens of moral education in order to establish its legitimacy. In reviewing the school regulations in Macao, the administrative control is identified as a major approach used by schools to govern their students. There is a lack of moral values dissemination in school regulations. More importantly, school regulation is very often reduced to a mechanical operation. In this paper, text analysis is employed to examine the discrepancy between the moral values set in school objectives and school regulations in practice in order to raise our concern about daily practice in schools.
Keywords: moral education; school regulations; moral values; school education

Professional Exchange

Youth Online Interaction and Communication of Drugs Information - StanleyC. Y. HO
StanleyC. Y. HO
Youth Drugs Issue Concern Group, The Boys' and Girls' Clubs Association of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This paper explores the relationship between virtual communities and youth drug use according to some relevant research reports, especially the “Online drug information and Internet-based interventions: A pilot feasibility study” conducted by The Boys’and Girls’ Clubs Association of Hong Kong in 2010. Nowadays, in the so-called “risk society,” “risky” information is more easily shared without limitation of time and distance in cyberspace. On the other hand, the Internet seems to be a golden opportunity for reaching the young people in need. This paper also reflects on the feasibility of Internet-based youth work using the case study of online drugs information.
Keywords: online drugs information; Internet-based interventions; virtual communities, youth culture, risk society
A Study on the Awareness of Rule of Law among University Students in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Macao: Its Implications for Promoting Legal Education - Angela NGAI Shui Ching CHAN
Angela NGAI
Supervisor, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups
Shui Ching CHAN
Youth Work Officer, The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

[Abstract] The rule of law is the foundation of our civilized society. Although the social backgrounds and legal systems of Hong Kong, Macao, and mainland China differ greatly from one another, the promotion of legal education is highly significant to the continuity and inheritance of the rule of law. This article investigates and analyzes knowledge and attitudes of the awareness of rule of law among university students in Guangzhou, Hong Kong and Macao through a comparative study carried out by The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups. Derived from the research results, this article suggests some considerations regarding the development of promoting legal education in the three regions concerned.
Keywords: rule of law; promotion of legal education; university students; Guangzhou, Hong Kong, and Macao
The Impacts of Ingratiation on Interpersonal Attraction and Interpersonal Relation of Hong Kong Youth - Kwok Kuen TSANG Yi LIAN
Kwok Kuen TSANG
School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong
Department of Applied Social Studies, City University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] There is not much literature about the ingratiation of youth. This limits our understanding about the effects of ingratiation to the interpersonal attraction and interpersonal relations of youth. Consequently, the overall development of the studies and theories in this field are limited. The purpose of this study is to investigate this issue with Hong Kong youth through an online questionnaire survey. The results show that ingratiation cannot enhance the interpersonal attraction of youth. It is not necessary for ingratiation to improve the interpersonal relation of youth through enhancing their interpersonal attraction. In addition, this article also gives suggestions to improve the social life of the youth.
Keywords: ingratiation; interpersonal attraction; interpersonal relation
Comparative Studies on Chinese and British University Students’ Environmental Behaviour - Xikang ZHAO Baoya SHI David KIDNER
Xikang ZHAO
Professor, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy Research, Guangdong Academy of Social Sciences
Baoya SHI
Assistant Professor, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy Research, Guangdong Academy of Social Sciences
School of Arts and Humanities, Nottingham Trent University

[Abstract] Youth are our future, and hence their attitudes and behaviour towards environmental issues can indicate future scenarios for our society in this regard. This article compares the behaviour of Chinese and British university students in relation to environmental issues and seeks to briefly account for the findings.
Keywords: university students; environmental behaviour; comparative studies
Needs Assessment Survey on Enterprise Development in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria - O. M. ADESOPE N. S. AMADI A. C. AGUMAGU
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Faculty of Technical and Science Education, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

[Abstract] This paper focused on a needs assessment survey on enterprise development in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The authors collected data with the aid of questionnaires administered to 2,153 respondents in the study area, which they analysed using descriptive tools. Findings revealed that the respondents were mostly unemployed and did not have business ideas. They also generally lacked vocational and entrepreneurial development skills as well as adequate knowledge of the activities of the Small and Medium Enterprise Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN) in Rivers State. The authors recommend that SMEDAN should organise sensitisation workshops in all local government areas so that the people in the State will have adequate knowledge of its activities. Additional functional empowerment schemes should also be established to make sure that people have functional skills to ensure sustainability. The government should also put in place an active labour market policy for youth employment in the State.
Keywords: enterprise development, youths, Niger Delta, Nigeria