Volume 13, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 25) The Impact of Pearl River Delta Integration on Young People

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2010

Volume 13 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 25


Feature : The Impact of Pearl River Delta Integration on Young People

Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta: Cross-Boundary Demographic Dynamics and Policy Implications - Karen S. L. CHEUNG Paul S. F. YIP
Karen S. L. CHEUNG
Post-Doctoral Fellow, Faculty of Social Sciences, The University of Hong Kong
Paul S. F. YIP
Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Since the open-door reform policy was adopted in China in the late 1970s, many Hong Kong manufacturers have moved their production facilities to the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Over the decades, the Hong Kong/PRD synergy has been the major impetus behind changes in cross-boundary demographic processes. This paper examines several prominent cross-border demographic issues, including the One Way Permit Scheme, Mainland-Hong Kong marriages and births, and Hong Kong people working and taking up residence in China. Some policy issues on migration are also reviewed and the prospects for a holistic population policy are discussed.
Keywords: population policy; cross-boundary demographic dynamics; Hong Kong SAR; Pearl River Delta
The Impact of the Mainland China-Hong Kong Interface on Hong Kong People’s Livelihood - Ernest W. T. CHUI
Ernest W. T. CHUI
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】China’s economic liberalisation has promoted economic interaction between mainland China and Hong Kong and variously affected the livelihood of the people of Hong Kong, which in turn has led to a variety of problems. These include an increase in cross-border marriages, resulting in “pseudo-single parent families”, separation of family members; the adjustment and integration of new migrants from mainland China; cross-border school attendance; consumption; and crime. Moreover, disparities in the social service provisions and framework between Hong Kong and mainland China have posed barriers to the mainland China-Hong Kong interface in such areas as retirement and residence. The relevant departments and organisations of Hong Kong and mainland China should collaborate more closely in providing relevant services that will help promote better social exchange.
Keywords: Hong Kong; mainland China; social inclusion
Promoting Sustainable Economic Development through Guangdong-Hong Kong Cooperation in the Service Industry
Staff Officer, The Greater Pearl River Delta Business Council
Managing Director, Li & Fung Research Centre
Carol K. W. MA
Staff Officer, The Greater Pearl River Delta Business Council
Research Analyst, Li & Fung Research Centre

【Abstract】This essay will start by adopting an historical perspective to show that the mode of economic cooperation between Guangdong and Hong Kong will evolve from “shop in the front, factory at the back,” which has been dominant during the past 30 years, to a new stage of service industry integration. A series of recent policies, in particular, the Development Plan for the Pearl River Delta Region for 2008-2020, has provided favourable conditions for further economic collaboration. This essay will also set forth recommendations for removing the existing barriers encountered by Hong Kong’s service providers when entering the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The trends of regional cooperation and unifying the development of cities in the PRD will be discussed.
Keywords: Guangdong-Hong Kong; service industry; economic integration; Pearl River Delta region; regional cooperation
The Employment and Life Situation of Youths Who Shuttle Between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta - Yiu Tong CHENG
Yiu Tong CHENG
President, The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions

【Abstract】In recent years, there has been an upward trend of Hong Kong people going to work and live in Guangdong Province. When Hong Kong youth work and live in the Pearl River Delta, they need first to adapt to the style of work and life in the mainland, second to understand national conditions, and third to arrange suitable leisure activities. According to the experience of the Mainland China Consultation Services Ce.ntre of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions in handling such cases, we suggest that the government strengthen employment coordination and other measures to assist Hong Kong youth in working and living in mainland China.
Keywords: Hong Kong youth; Pearl River Delta; work; life; Mainland China Consultation Services Centre of The Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions
Seizing Economic Integration Opportunities and Exploring Youth Employment - Jonathan K. S. CHOI
Jonathan K. S. CHOI
Chairman, The Chinese General Chamber of Commerce

【Abstract】Economic cooperation between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has been moving towards high value-added services owing to the rapid development of the Mainland economy and the implementation of relevant policies by the central government. It has also provided diversified opportunities for young people in Hong Kong. The Chinese General Chamber of Commerce has encouraged youth to learn more about the nation and to better equip themselves. Hong Kong and the PRD region should further strengthen professional training and exchanges to prepare for the opportunities offered by regional economic integration.
Keywords: economic integration; youth development; professional training and exchanges
Exploring Critical Family Issues in Cross-Border Marriages: Four Women From Tin Shui Wai - Helena YUEN
Helena YUEN
Ph. D.; Solicitor; Accredited Family Mediator and Supervisor (HKIAC & Law Society)
Visiting Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration,
The University of Hong Kong (Family Institute and Centre of Buddhist Studies)

【Abstract】In 2006, over 40% of the marriages and newborn children in Hong Kong belonged to cross-border families. As the number of cross-border marriages increases, the number of divorces in these marriages is also expected to increase. Critical issues concerning cross-border marriages include (a) financial stress and lack of social support, (b) domestic violence, and (c) disparity in the legal and social systems between China and Hong Kong. These issues were explored through 4 case studies of the lives of women living in Tin Shui Wan. The analysis of the cases revealed how the relationship of the couple affected the parenting of the children. Recommendations for reforms, including family mediation and parenting plans, are put forward to enhance the resolution of custody disputes, even with allegations of domestic violence, upon the dissolution of cross-border marriages.
Keywords: cross-border marriages; couple relationship; domestic violence; family mediation; parenting plans
Development and Innovation in Higher Education in the Pearl River Delta - Siu Tong KWOK Si SHUM
Siu Tong KWOK
Executive Vice President, BNU-HKBU United International College
Research Fellow, The Institute of Education Innovation Research, BNU-HKBU United International College

【Abstract】Chinese higher education has changed tremendously since the reformation of the People’s Republic of China. Policy directions for higher education, as raised in the national policy paper Outline of the Plan for the Reform and Development of the Pearl River Delta (2008-2020), are encouraging Hong Kong to develop its education industry in order to become a regional education hub. This article discusses the growth and innovation in higher education in the Pearl River Delta by analysing the development of China and the Delta, as well as by elaborating the experiences of the United International College in creating an innovative education model and integrating education in the Hong Kong and Guangdong regions.
Keywords: Pearl River Delta; higher education; Guangdong-Hong Kong cooperation; Chinese-foreign education cooperation; education innovation
A Pluralistic Approach to Implementing Basic Education in the Context of the Integration of Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta Region - Ramsey D. Y. KOO
Ramsey D. Y. KOO
Past President, The Association for Childhood Education International (Hong Kong & Macau)

【Abstract】With the return of sovereignty to mainland China, the ties between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta region have been strengthened as never before. The 2009-10 Policy Address has proposed developing Hong Kong as a regional education hub as well as exploring possibilities for mainland students to pursue studies at non-public-sector secondary schools in Hong Kong. This paper first reviews the background of economic integration between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta. It then examines the changing role of education and the need for diversification and a pluralistic approach that schools could implement to fulfil basic education requirements in the context of rapid regional integration. A discussion of problems and challenges faced by educators and society is included in the conclusion.
Keywords: integration of the Pearl River Delta region; pluralistic approach in implementing basic education; education hub; development trends in the running of schools
The Transport Network which Enhances the Integration Between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta Region - Thomas M. H. CHAN
Thomas M. H. CHAN
Head, China Business Centre, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

【Abstract】The social and economic environment of the Pearl River Delta region is on the verge of great changes. The railway transport network led by Guangdong Province is promoting regional integration in both the economy and society. The unifying development of the Guangzhou and Foshan municipal areas will enhance regional integration between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta. The build-up of express rail link and intercity rail will become the basis for exchanging people and for communicating between the two places. To avoid becoming marginalised, Hong Kong should review its current measures that restrict entry of mainland people on the grounds of the principle of “one country, two systems.”
Keywords: social integration; railway transport; Pearl River Delta region; marginalisation
Strategies for Environmental Cogovernance in the Integration of the Greater Pearl River Delta Region - Xikang ZHAO
Xikang ZHAO
Professor, Centre for Environmental Economics and Policy Research, Guangdong Academy of Social Sciences

【Abstract】The problem of environmental governance in the integration of the greater Pearl River Delta region should be solved by setting up an innovative mechanism. The present shallow cooperation, which emphasises self and partial interests and confines discussion to the matter at issue, should be changed. Different strategies should be adopted that would seek all-round and in-depth environmental cooperation, such as an innovative joint conference arrangement; enhancement of the status of environmental nongovernmental organisations in the mainland, Macao, and Hong Kong; encouragement of environmental benchmarking among Hong Kong and Macao enterprises; the build-up of a mutual environmental monitoring network; and the sharing of environmental information.
Keywords: Greater Pearl River Delta; integration development; environmental cooperation
Sharing Column: How To Prepare Yourself To Stay in Mainland China - Christina LI

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Overdependent Adolescents and Reflections on Family Education

The Dependent Generation in Modern Taiwanese Society: The Perspective of Parent-Child Interactions - Kuang-Hui YEH Wei-Chun TSAO
Kuang-Hui YEH
Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica
Department of Psychology, National Taiwan University
Wei-Chun TSAO
Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica

【Abstract】This paper examined the phenomenon of overdependence on parents among Taiwanese adolescents. First, it clarified the characteristics of the autonomous development of Taiwanese adolescents. It then elucidated the formation and maintenance of a dependent mentality among adolescents via the influences of ideal parenting beliefs, the actual family interaction pattern, and intergenerational discrepancies in value systems in Taiwanese society. Finally, this paper offers some suggestions for contemporary Taiwanese parents on how best to interact with their adolescent children.
Keywords: adolescent; autonomy; dependence; parenting dilemma; parent-child interaction
A Descriptive Study on Parenting Behaviours in Urban China - Yan WANG
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Fudan University

【Abstract】Using data collected from questionnaires by 905 parents of adolescents in Shanghai and Beijing, this study shows that great changes have taken place in Chinese parenting patterns. Urban Chinese parents tended to show a high level of concern over their single child’s psychological development and physiological health. At the same time they usually would not indulge their children’s material requirements. A semistructured interview with 60 parents indicated that only children in modern China tend to display some negative personal characteristics such as being too possessive and having too much self-concern. On the other hand, they also show a high level of outgoingness, self-confidence, and optimism. Finally, the ability of only children to take care of themselves and be independent still has much room for improvement.
Keywords: parenting behaviours; only-children
From Dependence to Independence to Interdependence: The Parenting Journey in Raising Boys to Become Men and Girls to Become Women - Adrian P. A. LIM
Adrian P. A. LIM
Registered Psychologist (SPS); Registered Social Worker (Life, SASW); Registered Counsellor (SAC)
Counselling Psychologist (private practice)
Associate Lecturer and Clinical Supervisor in Psychology, Social Work and Counselling
Programme Manager, Dads for Life Secretariat, Ministry of Community Development Youth & Sports, Singapore

【Abstract】Some youth today seem to lack initiative, independence, direction, and drive upon entering adulthood. Moreover, they are often overreliant and overdependent on their parents for their emotional, social, psychological, and even financial support. This paper proposes 12 ways of understanding this phenomenon: the Asian societal norm to achieve and excel, the kiasu (fear of losing) mentality, the lack of rites of passage, the smaller family size, growing up in a “land of plenty,” developmental shortcuts, marital relationship challenges, overinvolved mothers and underconnected fathers, parental overprotection, parental material overcompensation for the little time parents spend with their children and the weak bonds that are formed between them, the child’s temperament and needs, and parental insecurity about letting go. The author suggests that improvements to parent-child relationships can be made if parents foster healthy developmental youth individuation and inculcate age-appropriate relational boundaries that encourage interdependence. Also, fathers’ involvement in parenting can be encouraged by establishing fathers’ movements.
Keywords: interdependence, unhealthy codependent parent-child relationship, relational boundaries, rites of passage, individuation
From “Dependent Generation” to a Reflection on Family Education - Ching Man LAM
Ching Man LAM
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This article revisits the purpose, focus, and meaning of family education, and reflects on the direction of services. It first examines the “dependence” phenomenon of the new generation, followed by a review of the experiences of family education in Hong Kong and associated myths. The review reveals a need for a new vision and a new focus on family education. The article suggests clarifying the objectives and focuses of family education, as well as reconceptualising family education as “parent empowerment.” For the concept of “parent empowerment” to be implemented, family workers must have a shift in perspective and change in roles.
Keywords: family education; parent education; parenting; parent empowerment
Macao Family Education: The Challenge of Balancing Work and Family - Kai Yin LEUNG
Lecturer, Social Work Program, Macao Polytechnic Institute

【Abstract】Recently benefitting from government policy, the Macao gaming industry has undergone rapid development and now hosts over 20% of the working population. Parents working in the casinos now face “on-shift duty” and long work hours, making it very hard to maintain a balance between work and family. At the same time, family education plays a significant role in the growth of children. By examining this balancing act, this paper provides a critical review of Macao family education in a “casino economy.”
Keywords: family education; new risk; family friendly

Professional Exchange

What is Youth (Un)Participation? An Analysis of Technologies of the Self - Ka Chun SHIU
Ka Chun SHIU
Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University

【Abstract】A current concern in youth services is the factors causing a low rate of youth social participation. Up to now, most studies have reduced this problem to a question of youth disaffection and have simply advocated an increase in civic education. But this increase has not ameliorated the problem but instead has made things worse. This paper explores this problem using Foucault's concept of technologies of the self. It argues that youth (un)participation has become habituated through the creation of technologies of the self.
Keywords: youth participation; disciplinary power; technologies of the self
Contents and Service Standards for the Independent Living Preparation of Adolescents Leaving Care
Chung-Yi HU
Department of Guidance and Counseling, National Changhua University of Education

【Abstract】Many adolescents leaving care lack sufficient skills for independent living, making it more difficult for them to adapt to the community. In the past, practitioners have neglected to build up the important capability of independent living, including life skills, self-identity, social network and community connections, education, employment, and housing. The author analyses the practical experiences of Taiwan and introduces service standards from the United States. The paper concludes with some further reflections on practice.
Keywords: independent living; leaving care