Volume 15, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 30) The Challenges of Hong Kong’s Economic Integration with the Mainland

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2012

Volume 15 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 30

Feature : The Challenges of Hong Kong’s Economic Integration with the Mainland

The Basis of Hong Kong’s Economic Integration with the Mainland and Its Future Development Trends - Pui King LAU
Pui King LAU
Deputy, National People’s Congress of the PRC

[Abstract] The relationship between Hong Kong and the Mainland in the economic area such as trade, finance, and tourism has become closer in the recent 15 years since the handover. The national “12th Five-Year Plan” supports the development of Hong Kong in the finance, maritime, logistics, tourism, information, and other high value-added services industries. It consolidates and enhances Hong Kong’s status as an international financial, trade, and maritime centre. With the signing of the Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA), the Outline of the Plan for the Reform and Development of the Pearl River Delta, and the Framework Agreement on Hong Kong/Guangdong Cooperation, the central and Guangdong governments once again introduced measures to strengthen cooperation between the Mainland and Hong Kong. Hong Kong can make a positive difference if the SAR government can play an active role in implementing the 36 supportive measures and the recommendations made on Hong Kong-Guangdong cooperation.
[Keywords] economic restructuring; industry transformation and upgrading; economic planning; Hong Kong-Guangdong cooperation; supportive measures for Hong Kong
The Impacts of Integration with Mainland China on Hong Kong’s Social Development - Anthony WONG
Anthony WONG
Chief Research Officer, The Hong Kong Council of Social Service

[Abstract] This paper discusses the impact of integration with Mainland China on Hong Kong’s social development and proposes a class-based argument against the prevailing ethnicity-based argument to explain the problems of social development arising from integration. It argues that a certain class across the boundary has benefited greatly from the economic integration while leaving all the negative externalities unattended. This paper raises a policy question of how to establish a cross-boundary redistribution mechanism to deal with this new transboundary class issue.
[Keywords] social development; cross-boundary integration; class; ethnicity; redistribution
How a Population Policy Can Be Formulated in Response to Hong Kong’s Integration with the Mainland
Nelson W. S. CHOW
Chair Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong
Edited and Compiled by: Editor of Journal of Youth Studies

[Abstract] While Hong Kong continues to strengthen its integration with the mainland, the number of babies born in Hong Kong to mainland women has soared since 2004. As a result, there has been an increase in the demand from the community for the formulation of a population policy. This article advocates a people-centred approach to formulating a population policy. The policy should be family focused and be able to promote social solidarity. Analysing the actual social situation, the article argues that Hong Kong does not need babies whose parents are both nonresidents. However, it suggests that mainland pregnant women with Hong Kong husbands should enjoy the same benefits as local pregnant women so that their children would be able to grow up in Hong Kong.
[Keywords] population policy; people-centred approach; mainland pregnant women; babies born to Mainland parents; ageing population
The Impact of Mutual Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications between Mainland China and Hong Kong on the Quality of Human Capital in Hong Kong - Alan C. K. CHEUNG
Associate Professor, School of Education, Johns Hopkins University

[Abstract] Since the signing of the mutual recognition of higher education qualifications between Hong Kong and China in 2004, the Hong Kong government has introduced several key corresponding initiatives to attract more nonlocal students to Hong Kong, especially Mainland Chinese. The findings in this paper indicate that the dramatic increase in the number of Mainland Chinese students studying in Hong Kong could be highly beneficial to the quality of higher education and human capital in Hong Kong. Since the majority of these Mainland Chinese students are among the best and the brightest—with a high concentration in high-technology and high-growth industries—they will likely add much to the local workforce and the Hong Kong economy. Concerted efforts and more favourable policies are needed in order to attract, develop, and retain talent so that nonlocal graduates may join the local workforce and contribute to the Hong Kong economy. Policy implications and recommendations are discussed.
[Keywords] mutual recognition of qualifications; higher education; China; Hong Kong; human capital
Hong Kong’s Immigration Policy for Mainland Students and Young Professionals: Effectiveness and Challenges - Chunya GENG Huan LI
Chunya GENG
President, Hong Kong Association of Mainland Graduates Member, Commission on Youth
Huan LI
Executive Vice President, Hong Kong Association of Mainland Graduates Member, Shatin District National Education Committee

[Abstract] Widely soliciting talented youths from Mainland China to study and work in Hong Kong is one of the most important long-term strategies to meet the local demand for talents, to change the structure of industries, and to improve the competitiveness of Hong Kong. This article starts by reviewing the evolution of Hong Kong’s mainland talent admission schemes over the past 10 years. It analyses the categories, scales, and current situations of mainland talent coming to Hong Kong, then discusses the effectiveness and challenges in both attracting and retaining talent. Relevant suggestions for further reform are also made.
[Keywords] mainland students and talent admission schemes; studying in Hong Kong; working in Hong Kong
The Challenges That Cross-Boundary Students Bring to Basic Education in Hong Kong - Siu Wai WU
Siu Wai WU
Vice Chairman, Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers
Assistant Professor, Department of International Education and Lifelong Learning, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

[Abstract] Cross-boundary education in the context of globalisation has attracted increasing research interest from scholars. Cross-boundary education in Hong Kong is a unique case of global cross-boundary education. More than 10,000 children journey across the boundary from Mainland China to go to study in Hong Kong every school day. Since babies born in Hong Kong to parents from Mainland China have the right of abode in Hong Kong, many parents who are both not permanent residents of Hong Kong choose to give birth in Hong Kong. The number of births of this kind has increased drastically in recent years. It is estimated that the number of cross-boundary students will multiply in the coming years. This article discusses and analyses the impact of cross-boundary students on basic education in Hong Kong. Recommendations on the policy, teaching, and community education of cross-boundary students are made.
[Keywords] cross-boundary students; basic education in Hong Kong; education planning; education for immigrant students; cross-boundary education
Caught between Two Cultures: The Everyday Civic Life of Cross-Boundary Youth Celeste - Y. M. YUEN
Department of Education Policy and Leadership, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

[Abstract] Young people who reside in Mainland China and study in Hong Kong are known as “cross-boundary (CB) youth.” They are Hong Kong citizens, and their well-being and social participation have a direct bearing on the success of civil society. Education is often seen as a social leveller, especially for the socially disadvantaged such as CB youth. School engagement reflects civic engagement. The nature and extent of their engagement with their schools and civic society are important indicators of social inclusion. However, society at large hears little from the voices of CB youth on education and current affairs, and this article is a response to redress this gap. The findings reveal that CB youth develop a kind of a “neither-here-nor-there” citizenship orientation. Their engagement with school and Hong Kong society is characterized by weak-tie relationships and a superficial tourist-type of exposure. Implications for policy makers and educators are discussed.
[Keywords] cross-boundary youth; civic engagement; school engagement; citizenship
How Can Social Services Meet the Needs of Cross-Boundary Students? - Yuk-ching CHEUNG
Yuk-ching CHEUNG
Director of Programme, Cross-boundary and Intercountry Casework Service, International Social Service Hong Kong Branch

[Abstract] There are 13,000 cross-boundary students studying in Hong Kong while living in Shenzhen. They cross the boundary every day but they cannot enjoy most social welfare services either in Hong Kong or in Mainland China. Having a unique socioeconomic and cultural background, these children encounter difficulties in adjusting to the school life in Hong Kong. Living in Shenzhen, their voices are not heard and their needs are not met. This paper will introduce the background and needs of the cross-boundary students and the services provided by the International Social Service Hong Kong Branch. Suggestions for effective policy provisions and social services to improve the life of cross-boundary students will also be presented.
[Keywords] cross-boundary students; cross-boundary families; cross-boundary services; cross-boundary social workers; China – Hong Kong integration

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Trends in Youth Continuing Education

The Current Situation of Youth Continuing Education in Mainland China and the Role of the Government - Dayong YUAN
Dayong YUAN
Institute of Vocational and Adult Education, Beijing Academy of Educational Sciences

[Abstract] Along with the economic and social development of Mainland China, there is a structural disparity between the market demand and the labour force in both quality and quantity. The advantage of youth continuing education has become more and more apparent. Though China has already established a multilevel, multitype, and multiform continuing education system, there are still inadequacies in the government management system, resource integration, and market functioning. This article recommends that the central government improve these systems and integrate resources and information. This article also recommends that the government build up an “overpass” for young people so that youth lifelong education can eventually be realized.
[Keywords] continuing education; youth education; lifelong education system; government role
Comparative Demand for Continuing Education Amongst Young Adults in Hong Kong: 2007/08 and 2009/10 - Weiyuan ZHANG Dorothy CHEUNG
Weiyuan ZHANG
Head, Centre for Research in Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong
Dorothy CHEUNG
Administrative Officer, Centre for Research in Continuing Education and Lifelong Learning, School of Professional and Continuing Education, The University of Hong Kong

[Abstract] This paper analyses and compares the demand for continuing education amongst young adults in Hong Kong in 2007/08 and 2009/10. Five topics are reported and discussed: the participation rate in continuing education, the top 10 subjects pursued by students, reasons for participating in continuing education, media sources concerning information about continuing education, and barriers to participating in continuing education. These research results could help continuing education institutions to offer programmes and help the Hong Kong SAR government to formulate a continuing education policy for young adults.
[Keywords] continuing education; lifelong learning; youth education
The Strategies and Trends of Youth Continuing Education in Taiwan - Kuo-te YANG
Kuo-te YANG
Professor, Graduate Institute of Adult Education, National Kaohsiung Normal University

[Abstract] The challenge of youth unemployment has led to a great demand for youth continuing education in Taiwan. While young people want continuing education to increase their competitiveness, the government also hopes that it will increase youth employment. This paper explores the strategies and trends in youth continuing education in Taiwan. First, it illustrates that there is a strong demand for youth continuing education when individuals face social change and difficulties in career development. Second, it introduces youth continuing education programmes that address these needs, and it explains the different strategies of continuing education. Finally, it summarizes recent trends in youth continuing education.
[Keywords] Taiwan, youth continuing education, strategies, trends
Analysis on the Trends in Macau Youth Continuing Education and the Continuing Education Work of the Macau University of Science and Technology - Ying Wa KWONG
Director, School of Continuing Studies, Macau University of Science and Technology

[Abstract] Youth continuing education in Macau helps fulfil young people’s aspirations, and continuing education is greatly influenced by the development of the society. By combining the analysis of Macau society and the work experience of the School of Continuing Studies of Macau University of Science and Technology, this article concludes that: (1) A large number of Macau youth plan to complete their continuing education on a part-time basis; (2) Macau youth increasingly regard training in single professional skills as important; (3) Coping with the moderate diversification development of the Macau economy and Guangdong-Macau cooperation are key elements of the future development of Macau youth continuing education.
[Keywords] Macau youths; continuing education; School of Continuing Studies of Macau University of Science and Technology
Youth and Continuing Education in Singapore - Vijayarengan MAHEANTHARAN
Director, The Professional and Adult Continuing Education Academy, Singapore Polytechnic

[Abstract] Singaporean youth today have a variety of ways to continue their education after leaving secondary school. A very large percentage continues their education, as there is a definite economic advantage to do so. Societal expectations also play a major role in encouraging youth to continue to learn and obtain higher qualifications. Polytechnic schools, which offer diploma level courses, admit 45% of school-leavers; junior colleges admit 25%; and the Institute of Technical Education admits 20%. Those who obtain Advanced Level certificates naturally go on to obtain their degrees, but even those who graduate with diplomas and technician certificates do not stop there. Instead, many strive to further their education and obtain the next higher-level qualification. The Singaporean government has recognised this desire in its youth and the demands of the economy, and it is doing its part by increasing the opportunities available to its youth.
[Keywords] Singapore youth; continuing education; “ladders and bridges” approach; Workforce Skills Qualification

Professional Exchange

Ethical Dilemmas of Social Workers in Juvenile Offenders Rehabilitation Service - Chung-yi HU
Chung-yi HU
Department of Social Work, National Taipei University

[Abstract] Social workers play dual roles of social control and rights advocacy. Their challenge is that they must obtain a balance between criminal justice and a client’s interests. This paper analyzes these ethical issues faced by social workers in juvenile justice settings, and discusses the code of ethics and ethical judgments. There are important ethical issues in service practice, including philosophy of treatment, confidentiality, self-determination, values, and advocacy.
[Keywords] juvenile justice; crime rehabilitation; social work ethic; ethical dilemmas
The Objective Factors Influencing the Entrepreneurial Projects to Enrich People by College-Graduate Village Officials – A Survey Based on the Subei Area in Jiangsu Province - De-feng MA
De-feng MA
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Soochow University

[Abstract] The entrepreneurial projects to enrich people are a notable feature of the college-graduate village officials’ work in northern Jiangsu province. While some goals have been attained by the entrepreneurial projects to enrich people, we should recognise that factors such as the short-term service of college-graduate village officials, the scattered distribution of entrepreneurial projects, the low entrepreneurial level, and the great pressure from the media will affect the effectiveness of these entrepreneurial projects.
[Keywords] college-graduate village officials; entrepreneurial projects to enrich people; objective factors
Effects of Year-Round Swim Training on Selected Cardiorespiratory Functions of Hong Kong Junior Secondary School Students - Frank H. FU Linxuan GUO
Frank H. FU
Linxuan GUO
Department of Physical Education, Hong Kong Baptist University

[Abstract] The effects of year-round swim training on selected cardiorespiratory functions were investigated using a sample of 60 junior secondary school students aged 13 to 15 years. The swimmers who participated in the study had all done at least 8 hours per week year-round swimming practice for more than 1 year. It was found that the swimmers had a higher aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen uptake), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) than the control group. It is concluded that year-round swim training at club level for 8 or more hours per week (4 days/week) can contribute to the development of an active lifestyle and physical fitness among Hong Kong secondary school students.
[Keywords] Growth and development; quality of life; physical fitness