Volume 17, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 33) Building Governance Capacity for the HKSAR Government: Obstacles and Solutions

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2014

Volume 17 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 33

Building Governance Capacity for the HKSAR Government: Obstacles and Solutions

The Governance and Development of the HKSAR: A Middle Way that Balances “One Country” with “Two Systems” - Albert H. Y. CHEN
Albert H. Y. CHEN
Chan Professor in Constitutional Law, Faculty of Law, University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This article explains how the Basic Law regulates the constitutional relationship between the Central Government of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), particularly how the Basic Law simultaneously provides for the dual principles of national sovereignty and the HKSAR’s high degree of autonomy. The article then discusses how the Basic Law and the relevant interpretation of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee deals with the question of the gradual democratization of Hong Kong’s political system. Finally, the article considers the question of the election of the Chief Executive by universal suffrage in 2017, and suggests that Hong Kong should pursue a “Middle Way” that is based on both principles of national sovereignty and Hong Kong’s democratic autonomy.
Keywords: Basic Law, sovereignty, autonomy, democracy, universal suffrage
Government-Legislature Relationship and Governance - Jasper Yok Sing TSANG
Jasper Yok Sing TSANG
President, Legislative Council, The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

【Abstract】The current system cannot provide for an “executive-led” relationship between the Government and the Legislative Council which used to exist before 1985, when the whole Legco was appointed by the Governor. Without constant and reliable support in the Legco, the Government can hardly push ahead with any policy that is controversial but necessary for society’s long-term benefit. To ensure good governance, universal suffrage must be accompanied by effective solutions to problems in various areas, including the role of political parties, election methods for Legco seats, and a mechanism for balancing conflicting interests in the legislature.
Keywords: universal suffrage, effective governance
Political Distrust, Governability and Institutional Deadlock in Hong Kong - Sonny Shiu Hing LO
Sonny Shiu Hing LO
Head and Professor, Department of Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

【Abstract】Since the reversion of its sovereignty from Britain to China on 1 July 1997, Hong Kong has witnessed a serious crisis of legitimacy in terms of both performance and procedural aspects. In terms of performance, the Hong Kong government has been constantly criticized by an assertive mass media, an active civil society, and the ideology of populism, which sees public opinion as of paramount importance. The problem of governability in Hong Kong reveals deep political distrust and institutional deadlock in the special administrative region. Although the Hong Kong government, with the support of the central government in Beijing, tries to tackle the governability problem by considering and promising political reforms, notably the direct election of the Chief Executive in 2017, citizens’ deep political distrust of the government does not bode well for the prospects of governability in Hong Kong. The rise of populism is, arguably, plunging the Hong Kong special administrative region into an unprecedented crisis of legitimacy, which will culminate in 2014 and early 2015, when some democrats vow to mobilize their supporters in the form of a so-called Occupy Central District Movement.
Keywords: political trust, populism, governance, political reform, legitimacy crisis
Political Attitudes and Political Participation of Hong Kong Youth - Victor ZHENG
Victor ZHENG
Co-Director, Centre for Social and Political Development Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Po San WAN
Research Officer, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Kevin WONG
Research Associate, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】In the past, the political attitudes and political participation of young people in Hong Kong were seldom considered to be social issues. Recently, however, the increased involvement of Hong Kong youth in political activities has attracted public attention. Drawing on data from various social surveys conducted by the Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, this paper explores the views of young people in Hong Kong regarding current socio-economic-political developments, democratization, their political aspirations, and their actual political behaviour and make a comparison with earlier generations. Through statistical analysis, this paper offers solid explanations for the recent phenomenon of increased political engagement among Hong Kong youth, which will broaden our understanding of their political ideals and the socio-political environment of Hong Kong.
Keywords: political attitude, political participation, youth and society, social survey
Autonomy, Self-Governance and Social Participation: Some Patterns of Civil Society Development in Hong Kong - Hon Fai CHEN
Hon Fai CHEN
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Policy, Lingnan University

【Abstract】This article seeks to clarify the concept of civil society and analyse its developmental patterns in Hong Kong since the post-war era. On the basis of previous studies on this subject, the article demonstrates that the origin of Hong Kong civil society can be traced back to the proliferation of social movements and pressure groups in the 1970s. These civil society groups were eventually transformed into political parties or subvented social service organizations in the 1980s and 90s, with a corresponding shift in tactics from mass mobilization to institutionalized exchange with the government. The article proposes that social enterprise, if properly understood as a community-based, participatory movement rather than a top-down project of public management, can serve to enhance the autonomy and self-governance of civil society, without thereby running into the blind alley of unyielding confrontation and social polarization.
Keywords: civil society, NGOs, pressure groups, social enterprise, social movement
The Rise of Transgressive Contention by Young Activists: Recent Cases in Hong Kong - Nick Hin Kin OR Calvin Hiu Ming LAU
Nick Hin Kin OR
Senior Research Associate, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong
Calvin Hiu Ming LAU
MAPPM 2013 graduate, Department of Public Policy, City University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This article looks at the causes of the prevalent transgressive contentions initiated by young activists in recent years in Hong Kong. Three cases are examined and compared: the rise of the League of Social Democrats and People Power, Local Actions, and Scholarism. By studying the macro, meso, and micro aspects of the cases, we argue that the rise of youth transgressive contention is not just a consequence of adverse sentiments and broader socioeconomic conditions —— worsening social mobility and economic prospects, higher levels of education, emergence of critical citizens, HK-China integration, and distrust towards the HKSAR government. In addition, the organizational strength and networking among societal actors, the recruitment and nurturing process of these organizations, and their framing strategy are determinants of the outburst of youth activism in Hong Kong.
Keywords: contentious politics, transgressive contention, political participation, youth activism, young activists

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Enhancing Youth Mental Health

Mental Health of Youth in Hong Kong - Carman Lai Moy WONG
Carman Lai Moy WONG
Lecturer, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This paper attempts to explore the mental health problems of the youth in Hong Kong and presents some discussions on this subject. A model of holistic well-being is recommended to enhance the mental health of young people from physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and family-orientated perspectives. The latter part of this paper suggests the promotion of early intervention, community mental health education, and some preventive directions, such as policy advocation from family, education, medical, and social service perspectives.
Keywords: mental health, youth mental health
The Exploration of the Basic Methods to Promoting the Youth Mental Health Improving - Chun Mei CHANG
Chun Mei CHANG
Associate Professor, China Youth University for Political Sciences

【Abstract】With the acceleration of social development and the intensification of competition in society, the mental health of the youth has begun to attract more attention from the public. Taking the perspective of educational intervention, this paper will discuss the basic methods of improving youth mental health via five aspects: the cultivation of emotional intelligence, improving self-evaluation ability, improving employability, cultivation of a healthy lifestyle, and cultivation of moral ability.
Keywords: youth, mental heath, improving, basic method
Youth Mental Health in Singapore - John C. M. WONG Adrian Seng Wei LOH Celine Hsia Jia WONG Wei Shyan LIM Jayne Wen Ling HO
John C. M. WONG
Head, Department of Psychological Medicine, Child Psychiartry Division, National University Health System
Adrian Seng Wei LOH Celine Hsia Jia WONG
Psychiatrists, Department of Psychological Medicine, Child Psychiartry Division, National University Health System
Wei Shyan LIM Jayne Wen Ling HO
Resident Designations, Department of Psychological Medicine, Child Psychiartry Division, National University Health System

【Abstract】The youth made up a fifth of Singapore’s resident population in 2012. Many are provided with ample educational opportunities preparing them and giving them a head start in technical and professional lifelong employment and a predictable career path. But with changing demographics of both parents working in a nuclear family with small sibship, greater social affluence, increased emphasis on academic excellence, high penetration of Internet and personal social media use, greater awareness of the need for personal space and rights, and the convergence of protective and risk factors impact on youths’ emotional and mental well-being vary differently across individuals and society. The government, communities, and parents are responding to these new challenges at the social policy level and work in close partnership with volunteer welfare organisations (VWOs), developing youth social support systems, further evolving the comprehensive national education system, and strengthening family fabric structure and parenting like never before, to mitigate the changing tide. The work that is still evolving as much is needed by given the rising tide, but we are seeing some positive results. A Singapore Youth Resilience Scale was developed to further investigate individual protective factors and understand how incorporating culture and diversity factors would contribute towards resilience among Singaporean youth.
Keywords: youth, mental, wellbeing, Singapore
Internet Addiction among Taiwanese Youths - Li Ren CHANG
Psychiatrist, Earthly Clinic at Taipei Adjunct lecturer, Medical College, National Taiwan University

【Abstract】Internet addiction is a significant mental health problem in Taiwan. Its prevalence is around 10-20% among youths. The contributing factors of internet addiction include psychological characteristics, parenting styles, and socio-economic changes. It is often co-morbid with psychopathology, such as substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, depression, social phobia, and sleep disorders. The treatment strategies include individual psychotherapy, group therapy, and therapeutic recreation. In the future, Taiwan should integrate resources and strengthen measures for the prevention of internet addiction.
Keywords: internet addiction, parenting styles, psychopathology, psychotherapy, Taiwan
The Mental Health Crises of Gaming Employees in Macao - San Lan KONG
San Lan KONG
House-in-charge of Mong Ha House, Richmond Fellowship of Macau

【Abstract】The gaming industry in Macao has developed rapidly over the last decade. Because of the low requirements and the high salary, many young adults are engaged in work in the casinos. However, because of the particularity of the work and the characteristics of young adults, it is highly probable that these young gaming employees suffer mental health problems. This paper tried to explore the mental health crises among young gaming employees, focusing on the aspects of stress, gambling, substance abuse, and suicide through research, social context, and theory.
Keywords: Macao, gaming employee, young adult, mental health, deale

Professional Exchange

The life challenges of children born in Hong Kong to Mainland parents: From the policy and intergroup competition for resources perspectives - Yuk King LAU
Yuk King LAU
Professional Consultant, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】The resource stress caused by the rapidly increasing number of women from the Mainland entering Hong Kong for the sole purpose of giving birth has become one of the foci of the mounting intergroup conflicts between Hong Kong residents and Mainland visitors. Taking the perspective of intergroup competition for resources, this paper discusses how the contradictory directions of government policies and the inappropriate responses of the SAR government have intensified intergroup conflicts. With the exclusive population policies of Hong Kong and Mainland China, children born in Hong Kong to Mainland parents and their families are in an ambivalent and difficult situation. Ways to relieve their difficulties and alleviate intergroup conflicts are proposed at the end of the paper.
Keywords: government policies, children born in Hong Kong to Mainland parents, needs and adjustments, intergroup competition for resources
Construct Ecological Network Society Improve Cultural Ecological Environment - Jing duo LIU Zhong Fen LIU
Jing duo LIU
Professor, Theory and Policy Research Center, The Open University of China
Zhong Fen LIU
Doctoral Student of Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Wuhan University, Renmin Hospital, Hubei province, P.R.C.

【Abstract】In a network society circulating varieties of information, highlighting purpose, moral and aesthetic guidance has become an important issue for Chinese network cultural research scholars. Based on the appeal of constructing a harmonious society and ecological civilization, improve sustainable development of personality, ecological network construction must be enforced and a vibrant network encouraging personalized interaction should be built; strategic target of co-construction and sharing of high quality ecological network culture, improving life status of netizens and to promoting governance of network society can be reached through conscientious and scientific value guidance together with technological optimization.
Keywords: ecological network society, network ecology, harmonious society, mass micro-course, life status of netizens
In-School Farm Children as Young Animators for Information Dissemination amongst Small Holder Farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from Nigeria and Botswana - Adekunle A. ELUDIRE Jelili O. YUSUF Stephen K. SUBAIR Dixon O. TORIMIRO
Adekunle A. ELUDIRE
Department of Computer Sciences, Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji, Nigeria
Jelili O. YUSUF
Stephen K. SUBAIR
Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Services, Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Department of Agricultural Economics, Education & Extension, Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaboroner

【Abstract】In-school farm youth have been as potential information carriers and amenable in using ICTs due to their higher literacy levels. Conceived against the backdrop of the low extension agent-farm family ratio, the study explored the modelling of in-school farm children as young animators in Nigeria and Botswana, with a view to disseminating improved farm practices through the use of ICTs, serving as a bridge between extension agents and smallholder farmers. The study described in-school farm children’s characteristics relevant to the use of ICTs and determined their level of awareness, perception, and usage of ICTs. The study concluded that though in-school farm children from both countries presented varying degrees of awareness about different ICTS, they will be very useful as animators for dissemination of improved farm practices among smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: farm children, ICTs, young animators, small holder farmers, extension agents