Volume 16, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 32) Population Policy: Nurturing Young Talent and Increasing Productivity

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2013

Volume 16 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 32

Feature : Population Policy: Nurturing Young Talent and Increasing Productivity

Changes in the Population Demographic Structure and Youth Development in Hong Kong - Chi Kwong LAW
Chi Kwong LAW
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work and Social Administration, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Apart from the slowing of economic growth and the lack of diversity in Hong Kong’s industrial structure, existing statistical analysis does not give a positive picture of the impact of demographic changes in the past 30 years, or in the next 30 years, on the development of young people in Hong Kong. Similarly, reviewing the statistics of those among Hong Kong’s permanent residents who work mostly on the Mainland, we are not optimistic about the opportunities for our young people to work on the Mainland. The remaining public policies available to have an impact on the opportunities of youth development are the diversification of our industrial structure and the development of our education system, though young people’s ability to empower themselves and be in control of their own destiny are equally important.
Keywords: Youth development, demographic structure, Mainland opportunities
Raising Fertility Rate: from a Social Perspective - Herman FUNG
Herman FUNG
Friends of Bauhinia

【Abstract】Raising the fertility rate is the most direct way of alleviating the ageing of a population. From the experiences of other countries, we learn that there are multiple drivers affecting fertility rates, and such mechanisms may vary significantly from country to country. This paper analyses the specific factors that may affect couples’ decisions about child bearing in order to gain valuable insights that can aid in the establishment of policies to increase the fertility rate.
Keywords: fertility rate, ageing population, family friendly
Analyzing the Difficulties of Anchor Children Living in Hong Kong from Population Policy views - Ivan KWAN
Member of 30s Group, Housing and Planning Work Group

【Abstract】Over the past few years, issues concerning ‘anchor children’ have expanded to cover different aspects of Hong Kong society, from obstetrics and gynaecology services to educational issues. Increasing numbers of anchor children are coming to Hong Kong to receive primary school education. Though anchor children are Hong Kong residents, since their parents do not have Hong Kong residentship, the anchor children face a number of difficulties in being educated in Hong Kong. This article analyses the difficulties anchor children face in terms of education and growth in population policy, and looks at measures to improve future policies regarding anchor children.
Keywords: Population policy, anchor children, human resources
The Tertiary Education of Hong Kong: Challenges faced by the Youth and related Policy Implication - Paul YIP  Cassius CHOW
Paul YIP
Professor, Social Work and Social Administration Department, The University of Hong Kong
Cassius CHOW
PhD Candidate, Social Work and Social Administration Department, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Hong Kong citizens are convinced that education always promotes social mobility. In recent years, the media has reported that although youth in Hong Kong are generally attaining higher education levels as part of a trend of social advancement, their actual returns from jobs and their living standard do not seem to have improved much. This worrying situation has aroused discontent among the young. This article intends to understand Hong Kong families’ willingness to input into the education of their children and the actual monetary income from the jobs of various types of graduates. It also probes into the situation of the labour market and issues relating to the allocation of school places, and provides suggestions based on the phenomena discussed.
Keywords: Youth, input in education, returns of education, labor market, education inequality
Career Planning in the Changing Society - Yat Hung CHUI
Yat Hung CHUI
Lecturer, Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

【Abstract】This paper tracks the adolescent life planning and development in contemporary changing society from various career planning perspectives. It highlights some specific career transition models and related counselling concepts, and addresses developmental challenges and coping needs in response to a rapidly changing society.
Keywords: Career Development, Life Planning, Social Change, Career Counselling
Chances and Challenges for Non-Engaged Youth in the Changing Hong Kong Society - Victor ZHENG Chung Yan IP Fanny M. C. CHEUNG
Victor ZHENG
Co-Director, Centre for Social and Political Development Studies, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Chung Yan IP
Research Associate, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong
Fanny M. C. CHEUNG
Pro-Vice-Chancellor, the Chinese University of Hong Kong & Director, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, the Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】In 2011, 5.7% of the youth population of Hong Kong was non-engaged (not in employment, education, or training), with unemployment accounting for over three-fifths of this group. Disaggregated analyses of the official statistics reveal that this group is composed of those who are less educated and from disadvantaged family backgrounds. In view of the labour shortage and booming prospects of the construction industry, we argue that this industry represents one of the alternative career paths for these rather vulnerable youth. In contrast to the downward trend of incomes in low-level occupations in other industries, earnings for workers in the construction industry have been growing over time for different age groups. Accordingly, we call for a re-think of employment alternatives for low-educated youth.
Keywords: NEET, non-engaged youth, youth unemployment, labour market
Rejecting Adulthood or being denied of Adulthood: A Critical Interrogation on Youth Transition - Shui Ling Louisa YAU  Ka Chun SHIU
Shui Ling Louisa YAU
PhD, Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University Exco Member of Hong Kong Policy Viewers
Ka Chun SHIU
Associate Director, Centre for Youth Research and Practice, Hong Kong Baptist University Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University

【Abstract】The Census and Statistics Department of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administration Region published the Thematic Report: Youth in January, 2013, based on data collected from the population census of 2011. However, the statistics regarding young people’s education, employment, housing arrangement and marriage have not been thoroughly discussed in society. In response, this paper analyzes the local youth population with reference to different school-to-work transition theories and argues that the discourse of personal choice, with an oversight of the social and economic contexts where young people are embedded, is insufficient to explain the contemporary school-to-work transitions of young people.
Keywords: Youth Transition, individualization, marginalization

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Challenges Encountered by Young Ethnic Minorities

Key to the Social Integration of Ethnic Minority Youths in Hong Kong: Effective Chinese Language Education and Fair Language Policy - Wing Lok POON
Wing Lok POON
Fieldwork Supervisor, Social Work and Social Administration Department, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Right before and after the enactment of the “Race Discrimination Ordinance”, the HKSAR Government has been improving some of the specialized social services and school measures for better and lasting social integration of ethnic minority residents. Nevertheless, these residual and piece-meal services have actually proven to have limited effectiveness with respect to the learning of the Chinese language (especially reading and writing), employment, and university admission rates of ethnic minority youths! Some government officials and members of the public attribute the problems to the personal inadequacies of ethnic minorities, but ignore the most important structural problems of an unfair education system and language policy, i.e. providing them with effective formal Chinese education and developing “Chinese-as-a-second-language” curriculum and assessment.
Keywords: Social Integration, “Chinese-as-a-second-language” curriculum / policy, substantive Equality
Life Challenges and Social Inclusion among Indigenous Youths in Taiwan - Chung Yi HU
Chung Yi HU
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, National Taipei University

【Abstract】The purpose of this paper was to analysis the life challenges of the indigenous youth in Taiwan, including: income security, employment, ethnic identity, health and education. The author used the perspectives of social exclusion and social inclusion to review current public policies. The paper provides some recommendations for future practice, including reconstructing the presentation of indigenous culture; promoting social participation among the indigenous youth; developing practitioners’ multicultural ability; reviewing the policies of social exclusion and constructing indigenous policies and practices from the social inclusion perspective.
Keywords: indigenous youths, life challenges, social exclusion, social inclusion
Nonworking Poor or Working Poor? A Study on Needy Indigenous Peoples’ Labour Experience in Taiwan - Duu Chiang WANG
Duu Chiang WANG
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, Tunghai University

【Abstract】This study preliminarily investigated 10 needy indigenous individuals’ labour experiences in Taiwan. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling. We tried to show that they are not nonworking poor, they are the victims of low paid jobs. Some become part-time workers and even take up several jobs, but still do not earn enough to improve their situations. “Nonworking” is an inaccurate statement. It is the result of a misunderstanding that comes from the definition of the Labour Force Survey.
Keywords: new poverty, nonworking poor, working poor, indigenous people, labour experience
Theoretical Models on the Cross - cultural Adaptations of Foreign Students - Chang Ming WANG
Chang Ming WANG
Associate Research Librarian, Qian Xuesen Library and Museum, Shanghai Jiao Tong University

【Abstract】The combination of the accelerating pace of the internationalization of higher education and China’s reform and opening up has seen the number of foreign students in China grow with each passing year. Problems of intercultural adaptation of foreign students in China are the result of great cultural differences, especially between East and West, and the lack of a social assurance mechanism of management and service for international students, which deviates from the goal of the internationalization of China’s higher education. Discomfort, conflicts of values and disharmony of interpersonal relations are the main aspects of intercultural adaptation which pose obstacles for international students in China. The above problems can be solved effectively through optimizing the management and service systems for international students, establishing the appropriate intervention mechanism, adjusting the educational philosophy of internationalization and establishing the relevant social support systems.
Keywords: foreign students in China, intercultural adaptation, the internationalization of higher education, cultural conflict, social support system

Professional Exchange

An Empirical Review on Child Poverty Alleviation Policies and Programmes in Hong Kong: Strategic Change on School-based and Community-based Projects - Mun Yu Vera TANG Hung WONG
Mun Yu Vera TANG
PhD Candidate, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Associate Professor, Department of Social Work, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】In the concluding observations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child (2005) on China’s second periodic report, submitted on 27 June 2003, the HKSAR Government received a “warning” regarding children’s standard of living, in paragraph 72:“…despite the economic achievements of HKSAR, the Committee remains concerned at the existence of child poverty among vulnerable populations such as the unemployed, immigrants and single parent families…”. It has been almost 8 years since the HKSAR Government received this “warning”, but the child poverty rate is still alarming and has seen no significant decrease. This paper reviews the severity and impact of child poverty in Hong Kong, examines existing child poverty alleviation policies and programmes, and makes suggestions for strategic changes to school-based and community-based projects to increase the chances of poor primary school-aged children’s to have a better life when they enter young adulthood.
Keywords: Child poverty, Poverty Alleviation, Evaluation, School-Based, Community-Based
Meeting the Challenge of the New Senior Secondary School Curriculum: Case Studies on Student Teachers in Hong Kong - Kin Sang Jacqueline CHAN
Kin Sang Jacqueline CHAN
Associate Professor, Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The Hong Kong Institute of Education

【Abstract】This paper aims to explore how student teachers develop their professional knowledge and meet their challenges when they follow a new subject curriculum, accommodate students’ different backgrounds in class, and develop their paedagogical content knowledge in light of the New Senior Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC) reforms. The results of the study found that student teachers experienced many uncertainties during the process of constructing their professional knowledge. These uncertainties by and large emerged from the changing of the subject curriculum and hence caused major shifts in the subject content knowledge. There were also problems and challenges arising from student diversity in classrooms. Finally, the schools’ and society’s cultural values and their influence on the NSSC were found to be influential in affecting student teachers’ performance. The findings will not only help review the NSSC, but also enhance the development of teacher education.
Keywords: paedagogical content knowledge, student teachers, curriculum implementation
Introduction to University Governance - Lin CHEN
Professor, Centre for Urban - Rural Development Studies, East China University of Science and Technology

【Abstract】The university is an institutional arrangement as important as family, enterprise and government. It emerged earlier than modern enterprise, earlier even than the nation state and representative government. University governance is the hardcore of the modern university system. This paper, following the logical thread of corporate governance of non-profit organizations, offers an in-depth exposition of the theory of university governance. A university should have no affiliation to administrative subordination, nor relationship with return on investment. The relationship between a university and its students is not like the relationship between consumer and service provider. That between a university and its faculty is not simply a wage labour relation. The faculty and students are the university itself and they share in its governance. It is of vital importance to take university governance in China along the path from “non-nationalization” to “non-commercialization.”
Keywords: university governance, corporate governance, university autonomy, university board