Volume 20, Issue No. 2 (Serial No. 40) Youth Development in the Past Two Decades

Journal of Youth Studies

July 2017

Volume 20 . Issue No. 2

Serial No. 40


Feature: Youth Development in the Past Two Decades

Hong Kong Economy: Problems and Opportunities - Yun Wing SUNG
Yun Wing SUNG
Associate Director, Economic Research Centre, Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies
【Abstract】In the 20 years since Hong Kong’s handover, its economy has accumulated many deep contradictions and problems that are more serious than those of other developed areas. This article analyzes the causes of these problems and proposes solutions. It studies the strengths and weaknesses of Hong Kong’s competitiveness, and discusses how Hong Kong can capture the opportunities offered by China’s rise, taking advantage of China’s “Belt and Road” Initiative and the development of the “Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area,” and capitalizing on the strengths of Hong Kong as a global hub of international finance, trade, and services, and as a platform to project and develop China’s “soft power”.
Keywords: Hong Kong Economy; International Competitiveness Ranking; “Belt and Road” Initiative; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area; China’s External Economic Strategy
A Review of Education Reform and the Prospects of Hong Kong Education - Kai Ming CHENG
Kai Ming CHENG
Emeritus Professor, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
【Abstract】In view of the tremendous change in the modern era and our society, the employment mode of Hong Kong youth has changed significantly, and education development is also being affected. The traditional education system has gradually become obsolete. The article also reviews educational reform over the past 20 years, elaborating upon its aims and vision. A blueprint for education development in Hong Kong in the twenty-first century is also discussed.
Keywords: Career Path; Education Reform; Credentials; Learning Outcomes; School-based mode
Youth Participation in Hong Kong’s Low Carbon Transition - Kam Sing WONG
Kam Sing WONG
Secretary for the Environment, HKSAR
【Abstract】The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government mapped out Hong Kong’s Climate Action Plan 2030+ in response to the Paris Agreement. The plan attaches importance to the active participation of young people through an interactive, collaborative, and innovative way to mitigate climate change. The government is working closely with the youth in the acceleration of the low carbon transition with a view to changing habits and customs in such areas of daily life as dining, clothing, housing, and commuting.
Keywords: Climate Change; Low Carbon Transformation; Innovative; Interactive; Collaborative
Hong Kong Youth Identity (2006 – 2016) - Anthony Y. H. FUNG Chi Kit CHAN
Anthony Y. H. FUNG
Professor, School of Journalism and Communication, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Chi Kit CHAN
Assistant Professor, School of Communication, Hang Seng Management College
【Abstract】Drawing upon territory-wide surveys on Hong Kong identity conducted between 2006 and 2016, this article examines the changing identity affiliation to China of Hong Kong youth. The data indicate a decline in the cultural articulation of Chinese identity since 2012. The surveys further indicate that while Hong Kong youth feel a connection to the Mainland Chinese, cultural changes are affecting their impression of the latter. This shifting impression is consistent with their cultural alienation from China.
Keywords: Cultural identity; China experience; Post political transition; Social values; Cultural perception
What Kind of Youth Policy Do We Need? - Ming Wai LAU
Ming Wai LAU
Chairman, Commission on Youth
【Abstract】Youth is an important demographic, and also represents the key to Hong Kong’s sustainable development. A visionary and comprehensive youth policy (or youth development strategy) could provide extensive support to young people and their development. Ideally, it should offer a unified narrative for youth development, provide a frame of reference for policymaking and evaluation, and lay down an action plan for the next five to ten years. It should aim to build a more equitable and inclusive society, while also showing our investment in our future through showing that we, as a society, care about our young people. This article reviews historical and recent developments in Hong Kong, sets out a theoretical framework a youth development policy or strategy, and, through examining the current issues facing Hong Kong youth, proposes suggestions for a model, approach, principles, and strategic directions.
Keywords: Youth Development; Youth Policy; Youth Development Strategies; Hong Kong Youth; Youth Work
The Obstacle to Home Ownership Among Young People and its Social Implications - Vera W. H. YUEN
Vera W. H. YUEN
Assistant Lecturer, Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of Hong Kong
【Abstract】A majority of the youth in Hong Kong expresses a desire for home ownership upon marriage, but this dream is obstructed by the tightened regulation of mortgages, a minimal supply of publicly subsidized housing for sale, and the precarity of the labour market. The consequences of obstructed home ownership among young people include falling quality of life, change in family relationships, postponement of marriage, low fertility, squeezed consumption, and reduced lower-class mobility. Increasing the supply of subsidized housing may help to some extent, but alternative solutions, such as allowing withdrawals from the Mandatory Provident Fund Schemes to pay for home purchases, raising taxes on property owners, increasing subsidies or relaxing mortgage credit for buyers, may not help the situation or may be politically difficult to implement.
Keywords: Youth; Home Ownership; Housing Tenure; Subsidized Housing; Housing Policy
Raising Youth Competitiveness: Soft Skills and Sustainable Development - Shu Kam LEE
Shu Kam LEE
Associate Professor, Department of Economics and Finance, Hong Kong Shue Yan University
【Abstract】Today opportunities to move up are not as abundant as they were, although young people in Hong Kong have generally improved their academic qualifications. It is necessary for Hong Kong to improve youth competitiveness. Research has shown that soft skills have considerable implications for sustainability. High technology replaces mechanical duties but not the communication and coordination skills which are crucial in the workplace. To enhance youth competitiveness, this article discusses the soft skills training necessary to equip young people to adapt the challenges in their future career.
Keywords: Youth Competitiveness Indicators; Soft Skills; Vocational Education; Career Planning; Parenting Style
A Comprehensive Review of the Effectiveness of Hong Kong Elite Sport Policy - T-Fai YEUNG Man Tak KWOK
Research Fellow, SynergyNet
Man Tak KWOK
PhD Candidate in Chinese Studies, University of Cambridge
【Abstract】This paper aims to provide constructive criticism of Hong Kong’s elite sport policy. It will examine the key factors to successful elite sport promotion with the support of foreign cases. These factors could potentially serve as important foundations for Hong Kong to develop its sport at the elite level. This paper will also evaluate the HKSAR Government’s previous achievements in this area within the last two decades, which are significantly limited due to insufficient financial investment, lack of training, psychological, rehabilitative, and flexible learning support for athletes, and failure to detect potential elite athletes.
Keywords: Elite Sport Policy; Elite Sport Development; Youth System; Elite Athletes; Hong Kong
Diversified Mobilities and Autonomy: Mobility Strategies of Youth in Nonstandard Employment in Hong Kong - Ho Man LEUNG Hon Chu LEUNG
Department of Applied Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Principal Lecturer, Department of Sociology, Hong Kong Baptist University
【Abstract】This article seeks to explore the relationship between nonstandard employment and youth social mobility in Hong Kong. Through in-depth interviews, we find that youth in temporary and part-time employment can prevent downward mobility in their living standards by combining income from multiple jobs. Self-employed workers, on the other hand, can receive a greater return from their labour and develop diversified businesses for upward mobility. Nonstandard employment can also match the “non-mainstream” mobility aspirations of some young people and allow them greater autonomy in the pursuit of non-materialistic life interests.
Keywords: Nonstandard Employment; Flexible Employment; Precarious Work; Social Mobility; Youth Development
Social Movement and Youth Participation in Hong Kong: Importance of Co-Evolution between Government and Youth - Wilson W. H. WONG Gary K. Y. TANG
Wilson W. H. WONG
Associate Professor, Department of Government and Public Administration, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Gary K. Y. TANG
Post-doctoral Fellow, Center for Youth Studies Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
【Abstract】This article reviews social movement and youth participation in Hong Kong in the post-handover era. It captures the trend of a correlated rise in both youth activism and social movement. While this can be explained by political process theory, its mode of organization is relatively incompatible with traditional theories, such as resource mobilization theory, due to the major role played by social media in mobilization and communication. There are two key important messages for policymakers. First, in the age of Web 2.0 and cyberactivism, under the effect of the logic of connective action and the personalization of collective action, social media has transformed both youth activism and social movement by rendering them more individual-based, leaderless, and organizationless. Second, in response to this new mode of youth participation, policymakers must co-evolve with the new generation by adopting a new policy paradigm in engaging the youth.
Keywords: Social Movement; Youth Participation; Youth Activism; Cyberactivism; Co-evolution
Mentors: A Young Entrepreneur’s Secret Weapon - Jonathan WONG
Jonathan WONG
Project Director, The Center for Entrepreneurship, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
【Abstract】“Mentor” is a term commonly used in startup competitions. Are mentors vital to startups? Mentors, they have been there, done that, and have seen it all. Yet a woeful number of entrepreneurs start their business without one. Most successful tech titans were founded by people who had mentors. Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg was mentored by Steve Jobs. Jobs was mentored by Mike Markkula – an early investor and executive at Apple. Eric Schmidt mentored Larry Page and Sergey Brin of Google. Do startups need a mentor? What role does a mentor play? This article reviews the impact a mentor can have on startups and provides guidance for both mentor and mentee.
Keywords: Mentor, Mentee, Startup

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange : Sustainable Tourism Development

Sustainable Tourism in Hong Kong - Dennis S. K. WOO
Dennis S. K. WOO
Director, D Workshop LS
【Abstract】Sustainable tourism is a complex concept that can be understood in different ways. This article first reviews the discussion of this concept in the Chinese and Western literature. It then investigates the difficulties encountered during the promotion of sustainable tourism when different stakeholders are involved, as well the concept’s applicability in Hong Kong. Finally, issues of environmental justice are raised for further discussion.
Keywords: Sustainable tourism; Ecotourism; Sustainable Development; Environmental Education; Environmental Justice
Sustainable Development and Tourism in Singapore - Joan C. HENDERSON
Associate Professor, Nanyang Business School, Nanyang Technological University
【Abstract】Issues of sustainable development and tourism are explored in this paper with particular reference to the South East Asian city-state of Singapore. It is argued that Singapore’s success as an international tourist destination can be partly explained by effective urban and other forms of planning. General policies are increasingly guided by principles of sustainability which also inform the operation of the tourism industry and visitor experience. Although this modern and highly urbanized small republic may not conform to common perceptions of sustainable tourism in practice, there is evidence of endeavours to make progress in the field. Nevertheless, economic priorities tend to prevail and there are uncertainties about future directions and longer-term prospects.
Keywords: Singapore; Sustainable Tourism; Urban Planning
A Discussion of Non-Governmental Organization Collaboration in Rural Tourism Development Based on Stakeholder Theory - Kaiying GUO
Kaiying GUO
Lecturer, Xinhua College, Sun Yat-Sen University
【Abstract】The development of rural tourism in our country is in the early stages, so there are severe contradictions between stakeholders in the development process. The root of this issue is the imbalance of interests between different stakeholders. In balancing these interests, notably those of the company developing tourism and villagers, non-governmental organizations can play the role of coordinating relief. Therefore, based on stakeholder theory, this study discusses the role of non-governmental organizations in rural tourism development through field study, literature review, and interview, with cases including Panyu Shawan and Lai Chi Wo in Hong Kong.
Keywords: Stakeholder; Non-governmental Organizations; Rural Tourism; Sustainable Tourism
An Empirical Study of Community-Based Eco-Tourism in Forest Park Areas of Taiwan - Chun Hung LEE Yi Ting CHEN
Chun Hung LEE
Professor, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University
Yi Ting CHEN
PhD Student, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University
【Abstract】Forest parks offer carbon sequestration, scenic services, and ecotourism. Community-based ecotourism can maintain the local economy, protect the natural habitat, and boost tourism developed out of unique local cultural flavors based on the foundation of sustainable development. This study incorporates community-based ecotourism into management strategies for forest parks, and explores the characteristics and features of ecotourism in Taiwan. The conclusions of our paper offer new insights for establishing community-based ecotourism management programs in forest park areas.
Keywords: Integrated Thinking; Sustainability; Community-Based Ecotourism; Policy Making

Professional Exchange

Rural Youth Involvement in Farming Activities: Emerging Trends in Akoko South-West Local Government Area, Ondo State, Nigeria - G. F. KOLEDOYE O. OLAGUNJU
Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State, Nigeria
【Abstract】This study identified the various farming activities carried out by Nigerian youths and documented emerging trends in their involvement in agriculture with a view to ascertaining their level of involvement in adding value to agricultural produce in Akoko South-West local government area (LGA), Ondo State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 youths in 12 communities within the LGA through a questionnaire and interview schedule. A Binary logistic regression was used to make inferences. The results showed that the mean age of the youths was 34±11 years and the mean annual income was ₦265,280.00±21.159. The youths were found to be involved in both crop and animal production, with about 52.7 per cent having a high level of involvement. The majority (97.4%) of them were only involved in the production of crops and animals; only 32.8 per cent and 15.7 per cent were involved in packaging and adding value to produce, respectively. It was observed that the youths with a secondary education (b = -1.76) and a first degree (b = -1.609) had a negative disposition towards agriculture; only those with a diploma education (b = 1.609) had a favourable disposition towards agriculture. It was concluded that youth involvement in agriculture is taking on a new dimension in terms of value addition and packaging. It is therefore recommended that educational institution curricula should be tailored in line with global practices in agriculture in order for Nigeria to become self-sufficient in food production.
Keywords: Rural youths, involvement, emerging trends, farming activities