Volume 21, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 41) Development of Youth’s Whole Person Wellness

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2018

Volume 21 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 41


Feature: Development of Youth’s Whole Person Wellness

Whole-Person Development Framework for Secondary Students in Hong Kong – Ming Wai LAU Ambrose WONG Wai Kit TSANG
Ming Wai LAU
Founder of MWYO & Vice Chairman of Youth Development Commission
Ambrose WONG
MWYO Research Assistant
MWYO Research and Advocacy Director

【Abstract】“Score high, fly higher” has been the ethos of Hong Kong society in judging the “success” (or “failure”) of students. However, in a world as dynamic and rapidly changing as ours, academic performanceis hardly the only decisive factor by which to assess one’s abilities. Diverse qualities such as the ability to maintain health and wellness, possession of a wide variety of life skills, relationship literacy, civic literacy, and global awareness are essential for our youth to lead a successful and meaningful life in the 21st century. This project aims to establish a comprehensive whole-person development framework and to provide a reference for the education sector to review their student development policies and initiatives.

Keywords: Whole-Person Development; Multiple Intelligence; Core Competencies; Ethical Values; Enduring Happiness
Positive Youth Development through Sports in Hong Kong – Lobo H. T. LOUIE
Lobo H. T. LOUIE
Associate Professor, Department of Sport and Physical Education, Hong Kong Baptist University

【Abstract】Promoting the positive development of young people through sports is increasingly valued by societies around the world. Adolescents’ participation in sports is not only about physical fitness, it also has a comprehensive developmental effect on cognitive and mental health. This article attempts to explore the principles and strategies of promoting the positive development of young people through sports, as well as the difficulties and challenges encountered in Hong Kong.
Keywords: Youth Sports; Positive Youth Development
Discussion of Adolescent Obesity in Hong Kong – H. K. CHEUNG Denise Y. W. LEE Ruth S. M. CHAN Jean WOO
Registered Dietitian, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Denise Y. W. LEE
Student, Food and Nutritional Science, Faculty of Science, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Ruth S. M. CHAN
Senior Researcher, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong
Jean WOO
Emeritus Professor, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】With economic prosperity and changes in the overall social environment, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly. It is becoming a public health issue of great concern and intervention is urgently needed. Research has shown that more and more adolescents are overweight or obese in Hong Kong. Obesity not only affects an individual’s physical and mental health but can also lead to negative effects on the economic status of a society. This article will briefly introduce the current situation of adolescent obesity in Hong Kong and discuss the contributing factors, the health consequences and approaches to tackle the rising prevalence of obesity.
Keywords: Hong Kong; Adolescent; Obesity; Overweight; Prevention
Youth Smoking Trends and Derived Health Problems in Hong Kong – William H. C. LI
William H. C. LI
Associate Professor, School of Nursing, the University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Evidence shows that smoking has negative effects on nearly every organ in the body, accounts for the premature death of two-thirds of all smokers and is especially hazardous for those who start smoking at a young age. On the other hand, the use of electronic smoking devices including e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products among the youth is on an alarming upward trend. There is an urgent need to promote smoking cessation among young smokers, otherwise they will be at great risk of developing smoking-related diseases later in life.
Keywords: Disease; Health; Hong Kong; Smoking; Youth
Adolescents' Emotional Distress: Current Situation and Intervention – Siu Man HSU Ying Ying WONG
Siu Man HSU
Supervisor (Wellness Mind Center), The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups
Ying Ying WONG
Development Officer (Wellness Mind Center), The Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups

【Abstract】During adolescence, the critical phase of human development, young people experience rapid physical and emotional changes, as well as challenges in school and interpersonal relationships, which may create great stress. Unresolved stress may accumulate to cause different levels of emotional suffering. This article outlines the current situation, causes and effects of emotional distress in adolescents. It also suggests the importance of practical experience in promoting emotional health education.
Keywords: Adolescent; Emotional Distress; Emotional Health Education; Wellness
Preventing Youth Suicide – Developing Positive Attitudes and Values – Paul S. F. YIP Angie K. Y. SHUM Daniel W. M. LUNG Eliza S. Y. LAI
Paul S. F. YIP
Center Director, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention
Angie K. Y. SHUM
Training Consultant, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention
Daniel W. M. LUNG
Program Development Officer, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention
Eliza S. Y. LAI
Project Officer, The Hong Kong Jockey Club Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention

【Abstract】The suicide rate among young people has risen in recent years. In 2015, our centre launched a“Thematic network project on developing students’ positive attitudes and values”. Together with core schools, we aimed to promote evidence-based mental health enhancement programmes within the school. The programmes adopted cognitive behavioural therapy and positive psychology as conceptual frameworks. The results indicated that the programmes were effective to a certain extent. Teacher self-efficacy in teaching mental health-related programmes and recommendations are discussed in the last section.
Keywords: Suicide Prevention; Mental Health; Positive Attitude; Values; Evidence-based
Positive Education and the Whole-Person Mental Wellness of College Students - Alex C. K. CHAN
Alex C. K. CHAN
Assistant Professor, Department of Counselling & Psychology, Hong Kong Shue Yan University

【Abstract】In recent years, the public has become concerned about the emotional well-being of Hong Kong college students. Some post-secondary institutions have proactively launched new courses related to positive education with the expectation of improving the whole-person mental wellness of college students. This study also explores the importance and challenges of implementing positive education in Hong Kong post-secondary institutions. The author suggests that it is necessary to consider the institutional long-term development blueprint, person-fit and context fit when promoting, implementing and practicing positive education.

Keywords: Positive Education, College Student, Mental Wellness, Person-fit, Context-fit
~Sharing Column ~ The Double-edged Nature of Technology: The Impact of Young People’s Use of Smartphones and Online Games on Their Wellness - Ka Yu CHAN
Liberal Studies Teacher, Ng Wah Catholic Secondary School

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: STEM Education in Schools

STEM Education in Hong Kong - Man Ho CHAN
Assistant Professor, Department of Science and Environmental Studies, The Education University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Recently, Hong Kong primary and secondary schools have been promoting STEM education. Teaching students how to flexibly integrate science, technology, engineering and mathematics knowledge facilitates them to equip themselves with “21st century skills” so that they can face the challenges of this new era. In this article, we briefly describe the implementation of STEM education in Hong Kong and discuss the challenges.

Keywords: STEM Education; Science Education
Reflection on the Current Situation of STEM Education in Taiwan - Kuen Yi Lin
Kuen Yi Lin
Professor, Department of Technology Application and Human Resource Development, Taiwan Normal University

【Abstract】This article presents the current situation of STEM education in Taiwan in terms of educational policy, teaching practice and informal educational field. It also considers other countries’ experiences in promoting STEM education. Some recommendations for better promoting STEM education are provided for future reference.

Keywords: STEM Education; Reflection; Situation; Taiwan
STEM Education in Singapore - Tit Meng LIM Chester Y. T. ONG Cindy L. P. TIONG Yew Hock TAN Me Lan ONG
Tit Meng LIM
Chief Executive, Science Centre
Chester Y. T. ONG
Vincent C. H. NG
STEM Educator
Cindy L. P. TIONG
STEM Educator
Yew Hock TAN
Curriculum Specialist
Me Lan ONG

【Abstract】In order to foster interest and talent in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in secondary school students in Singapore, a collaboration between the Science Centre Singapore and the Ministry of Education (MOE) developed and deployed the STEM Applied Learning Programme (ALP) in more than 60 schools. The ALP is designed to inculcate a strong sense of ownership in learning and to broaden the horizons of education by incorporating real-world applications and authentic experiences with STEM industries. The STEM ALP platform integrates learning support systems, educational resources, interactive workshops and presentation opportunities. It takes a collaborative approach with partner organisations, connecting students to relevant industries. The paradigm shift from examination-driven to application-driven learning has built a STEM education ecosystem that is founded upon student-centric learning experience within and outside school.

Keywords: STEM; Education; Applied Learning; VUCA

Professional Exchange

Review of the ‘Voluntary Optimisation of Class Structure Scheme’ and its Impacts on Secondary Schools in Hong Kong - Charis W. K. WONG
Charis W. K. WONG
Vice-Principal, Carmel Pak U Secondary School

【Abstract】The number of school-aged children in countries in the East Asia and Pacific regions dropped significantly between 2005 and 2015, and the situation in Hong Kong is no exception. In order to cushion the shock and to lower the risk of secondary school closures, the Education Bureau launched the Voluntary Optimisation of Class Structure Scheme (hereafter ‘the Scheme’). There are 220 schools participating in the Scheme involving around 12,000 principals and teachers. This paper explains the implementation of the Scheme in a school, the obstacles and changes which principals must manage and the impact of the Scheme on the teacher workforce, and proposes a research framework to investigate the impact on principal leadership and teacher job satisfaction. It is the first study of its kind and the discussions will help better inform the general public of the multiple effects which the decline of the student population in Hong Kong schools has had in terms of education policy, principal leadership and teacher development. Furthermore, the implementation of the Scheme will offer insights for educational policymakers of the East Asia and Pacific regions as they too face the challenge of falling student populations.

Keywords: Education Policy; Educational Change; Principal Leadership; Student Population; Teacher Development
Comparing School and Civic Engagement of Chinese and Non-Chinese Youth in Hong Kong - Celeste Y.M. YUEN Alan C.K. CHEUNG
Celeste Y.M. YUEN
Associate Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Policy, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin N.T., Hong Kong
Professor, Department of Educational Administration and Policy, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This study compares the school engagement and civic engagement of non-mainstream youth (Chinese immigrant, cross-boundary and non-Chinese ethnic minority students) in Hong Kong and their mainstream Chinese peers. Using stratified sampling, more than 15,000 students from 28 secondary schools were surveyed using an integrated questionnaire instrument. ANOVA revealed that gender, grade level and family socio-economic status were significant factors for school and civic engagement. Moreover, the regression analysis results revealed that non-Chinese students rated higher than all Chinese student groups across school and civic engagement items, and in future political participation. The reasons for the findings and implications for policy development are discussed.

Keywords: School Engagement; Civic Engagement; Political Participation, Chinese Youth, Non-Chinese Youth
The Key Factors Affecting the Life Stability of Young People Leaving Residential Care - Hung Yi LIU
Hung Yi LIU
Assistant Professor, Department of Social Work, Shih Chien University

【Abstract】Research on transition services for adolescents in care has mainly focused on welfare needs and the establishment of relevant services. There is a lack of empirical research on the factors affecting life stability after care. This study was conducted in an adolescent halfway house located in H County in Taiwan, and involved interviewing ten care leavers individually and five residential workers in a group interview. It revealed several significant issues affecting the life stability of youth care leavers, including the provision of family services, whether they stay in H County or not, employment experience, social networks and physical and mental disability.
Keywords: Transition Services; Adolescent Residential Care; Aftercare Service; Independent Living Service
Deconstructing Myths of Agency in Sexuality: Empowering Young Women with Pregnancy Experiences in Hong Kong - Shirley S. L. HUNG
Shirley S. L. HUNG
Associate Professor & Associate Head, Department of Social Work, Hong Kong Baptist University
Director, Social Work Practice and Mental Health Centre

【Abstract】While young women now enjoy a certain degree of sexual freedom, they are also often subjected to sexual coercion/violence and unsafe sex, and are vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy. Whether they decide to abort or to keep the child, they shoulder most of the health and psychological costs along with new roles and responsibilities, as well as material deprivation, particularly those who become a mother. Unwanted pregnancy is likely to become a cycle as long as young women lack equal power with men in intimate relationships. Based on the findings of studies on teenage abortions and young mothers, the author proposes an intervention model to prevent repeated unwanted pregnancies and abortions/births by empowering young women who have experienced pregnancy. The feminist principles of empowerment are adopted. The model represents a critical social work approach to preventing unwanted pregnancies in the Chinese context of Hong Kong characterised by a youth culture of sexual liberation.

Keywords: Teenage Abortion; Unwanted Pregnancy; Young Mothers; Sexual Liberation; empowerment