Volume 20, Issue No. 1 (Serial No. 39) The Belt and Road Initiative and Its Opportunities for Youth

Journal of Youth Studies

January 2017

Volume 20 . Issue No. 1

Serial No. 39


Feature: The Belt and Road Initiative and Its Opportunities for Youth

The Impact of “Belt and Road”Policy on Hong Kong Economic Development - Raymond W.M. YEUNG
Raymond W. M. YEUNG
Assistant Professor, Department of Economics and Finance, Hong Kong Shue Yan University

【Abstract】This paper analyzes the background of the “Belt and Road” policy to understand the nature of the policy and cites it as both a continuation of, and change in, China’s policy of opening up its economy. Moreover, the Belt and Road policy is trying to build the largest tolerant and mutually beneficial cooperation platform. It is in line with China’s current economic development needs. In this context, the paper analyzes the Belt and Road policy’s impact on, and the opportunities it offers for, the economy of Hong Kong and makes recommendations accordingly.
Keywords: Belt and Road; Malacca Dilemma; China’s Western Economic Development; Economics of Infrastructure; Hong Kong Economy
The Advantages of Hong Kong in the Era of the Belt and Road - Yuk Lun LEE
Yuk Lun LEE
Vice President, International Academy of the Belt and Road

【Abstract】The Belt and Road has been proposed for almost four years, from the original concept of the Belt and Road, and “Vision and Action” issued by national government, to big projects invested overseas by “going-out” state-owned enterprises, and heated discussion among the people, the Belt and Road inspires the national enthusiasm into the era of opportunity. Hong Kong is a significant strength in the implementation of the Belt and Road. With the advantages of financial, legal and other platforms, Hong Kong offers “going out” enterprises with diversified financing channels, as well as professional services of the legal consultation, mediation and arbitration, helping investors avoid risks and solve disputes. Times demand talents with international perspective and professional ability. This article calls for Hong Kong society attaches great importance to the Hong Kong youth education, cultivating pattern of “big-picture” international view, guiding them thinking and shouldering the developing mission under the age of the Belt and Road.
Keywords: The Belt and Road; Going-out; The Era of opportunity; Hong Kong advantages; Hong Kong youth
The Belt and Road Initiative in the Big Era and the New World Order: Hong Kong’s Opportunities - Zhou FANG
Chief Research Officer, One Country Two Systems Research Institute

【Abstract】The Belt and Road Initiative is an ambitious project launched by China in response to the new international situation. The nations in Asia, Europe and Africa that are collaborating in the huge project comprise about 60% of the world’s population and account for 30% of global GDP. The central government of China has made it clear that Hong Kong, with its unique advantages, should actively participate in and support the initiative. As a major international maritime port – one of the most important Maritime Silk Road ports of origin – and a major Asian trade and financial centre, Hong Kong must seize the opportunity the Belt and Road Initiative brings to take part in the operations of international organisations, to further develop its offshore RMB business, to help the people of Hong Kong make full use of their talents and to develop Hong Kong’s professional services, doing so will enable Hong Kong to successfully play its allotted role as the ‘super-connector’ linking mainland China and the rest of the world.
Keywords: Belt and Road Initiative; Hong Kong; Six major economic corridors; Super–connector
The Belt and Road Intiative: Opportunities for Developing Hong Kong’ Infrastructure - Roger C.K.CHAN
Roger C. K. CHAN
Associate Professor, Department of Urban Planning & Design, The University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】With ever increasing inter-city competition, Hong Kong’s position as a regional transportation hub has come under intense challenge. This article examines how Hong Kong could enhance its competitiveness through infrastructure development within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative. Hong Kong could increase its accessibility by upgrading its infrastructure and connectivity to the transportation network of the Belt and Road. It could at the same time assume the important role of a ‘super-connector’ – facilitating cross-boundary cooperation – within the framework of the initiative.
Keywords: The Belt and Road; Competitiveness; Infrastructure; Hong Kong
Raising young people’s awareness and understanding of the Belt and Road Initiative - Alex WONG
CEO of Maritime Silk Road Society

【Abstract】When Chinese President Xi Jinping visited Kazakhstan on 7 September and Indonesia on 3 October 2013, he announced, respectively, plans to jointly build the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st- Century Maritime Silk Road – together comprising the Belt and Road Initiative – with a number of other countries. At that time, the Belt and Road Initiative constituted a proposed framework for international economic cooperation, but it is now firmly on the international agenda. It has since become China’s most important measure for promoting trade and economic development. Now, more than three years after being announced, the initiative has entered the implementation stage and Hong Kong’s position under the initiative has become clearer. For the younger generation, however, the concept of the Belt and Road Initiative remains abstract and remote. This paper examines how Hong Kong, with its distinctive history and culture, can capitalise on its unique status (under China’s ‘one country, two systems’ economic and political framework) to enhance its position by taking full advantage of the opportunities offered by the Belt and Road Initiative. This paper focuses on how to raise young people’s awareness and understanding of the Belt and RoadInitiative and create their positive attitude towards the Initiative.
Keywords: The Belt and Road; Hong Kong; young generation; One Country, Two Systems
“The Belt and Road Initiative”and Youth Entrepreneurship in Hong Kong - Kevin Y.F. AU A-Qi LIU
Kevin Y. F. AU
Associate Professor, Centre for Entrepreneurship, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

A-qi LIU
Ph.D Student, Department of Management, CUHK Business School

【Abstract】Entrepreneurs are agents of innovation and creators of profit. The level of entrepreneurship is affected not only by individual activities but also by the macroeconomic and social environment and by national strategies. The ‘Belt and Road Initiative’ launched by the Chinese government provides many opportunities for Hong Kong’s economic and trade development. Entrepreneurial activity in Hong Kong has increased significantly in recent years, and the government of the HKSAR has implemented measures specifically to support youth entrepreneurship. Given this context, what impact will the Belt and Road Initiative have on entrepreneurship? What opportunities might it bring to the development of emerging enterprises? This paper provides an overview of the entrepreneurial activity in Hong Kong – based on Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data on the Belt and Road Initiative relevant countries – and discusses the opportunities that the Belt and Road Initiative brings for such activity and the potential benefits of the initiative entrepreneurship in Hong Kong.
Keywords: Youth Entrepreneurship; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor; The Belt and Road Initiative; Market Opportunities; Financial Support
Hong Kong and the Belt and Road Intiative - Suk Man PANG
Suk-Man PANG
Department of History, Assistant Professor, Hong Kong Shue Yan University

【Abstract】The Belt and Road Initiative is an important twenty-first century initiative. Recently, a number of publications have discussed the economic implications of The Belt and Road initiative for Hong Kong; this paper, however, focuses on the opportunities for developing cross-cultural understanding. The young people of Hong Kong are suggested study or visit the Islamic countries – particularly the ones in the Arab world – that are participating in the Belt and Road Initiative. This would strengthen their understanding of the history, religion and cultural distinctiveness of these countries and help them appreciate the unique value of each country involved in the initiative’.
Keywords: Hong Kong; The Belt and Road Initiative; Islam, Arab world; Historical and Cross-cultural Understanding
Economic Diversification in Resource Rich Countries and the Prospect towards Hong Kong: A case of Brunei Darussalam - Ka Kei CHAN Hong Lam WONG
Ka Kei, CHAN
Participates of The Backpackers (Season 2)

Hong Lam, WONG
Participates of The Backpackers (Season 2)

【Abstract】Recently, the Belt and Road Initiative proposed by the Chinese government has shed light on the emerging economies, which are mostly resource-rich countries seeking economic diversification. On the basis of a case study of Brunei Darussalam, this research finds that the relatively slow pace of economic diversification can be attributed to a failure to recognize market demands. However, due to the enabling business environment and opening labour market in Brunei Darussalam, there are abundant opportunities for Hong Kong investors to expand their businesses and talents in this country. The study concludes with policy recommendations.
Keywords: Economic Diversification; Brunei Darussalam

Pan-Chinese Societies Exchange: The New Media and Suicidal cases among youth

The New Media and the Suicides of China’s Young People - Jie DAI Jun Yi LIU
Associate Professor, College of Social Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology

Jun Yi LIU
Department of Social Work, College of Social Sciences, Huazhong University of Science and Technology

【Abstract】With the arrival of the Internet era, young people are now exposed to new media, and as a result, their access to information and their behavior have changed considerably. In recent years, the number of adolescent suicides related to the Internet has been high. Adolescent cyber suicides triggered by new media have become a major concern. This paper attempts to explore the relationship between new media and young people’s self-destructive behavior and puts forward suggestions and measures from the perspectives of the media, the young, the family, society, and so on.
Keywords: New Media; Adolescent Suicide; Cyber Suicide
“New media” and self-harm in young people in Taiwan - Chien Yu LIN Shu Sen CHANG
Chien Yu LIN
MSc student, Institute of Health Behaviors and Community Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University

Assistant professor, Institute of Health Behaviors and Community Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University

【Abstract】We systematically reviewed literature from Taiwan (2007-2016) that investigated the association of ‘new media’, particularly internet, with self-harm or suicide in young people and identified eight empirical studies. Findings indicated a positive association of trend in suicide with internet search activity using specific suicide related keywords, and of self-harm or suicide risk with internet addiction or web communication defined using survey questionnaires or scales. Future research needs to further investigate the association of self-harm or suicide with various internet use behaviours and develop innovative interventions based on the online platform that may prevent suicidal behaviours.
Keywords: Internet; Young people; Self-harm; Suicide; Taiwan
The New Media and Suicide among Macau’s Young People - Chi Fai KWAN
Chi Fai KWAN
Associate Professor, Macao Polytechnic Institute

【Abstract】The rapid development of the new media has brought many changes to our modern lives. The Internet has become an essential part of our learning, work and interpersonal relationships. The impact of online media on self-destructive behaviour is an important topic in contemporary suicide research.
Through a secondary analysis of youth survey data and in-depth interviews with several experienced school social workers, this paper provides a preliminary exploration of the relationship between patterns in Internet usage, cyberbullying and the self-injurious behaviour of young people in Macau.
It is found that self-harm among the young people of Macau does not pose a serious problem and that the direct impact of the new media on such behaviour is less influential than is generally believed. However, those known to have engaged in self-harm are more likely to spend excessive amounts of time on the Internet and are more prone to be affected by the online information they come across.
Keywords: New media; Internet; Cyberbullying, Macau’s young people; Suicide; Self-harm
The New Media and the Prevention of Youth Suicide in Hong Kong - Qi Jin CHENG Forrest T.W.CHEUNG
Research Assistant Professor, Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong

Forrest T.W. CHEUNG
Project Officer, Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention, University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】Suicide is the leading cause of death among Hong Kong youths. There has been an increase in student suicide in Hong Kong in recent years. With the high penetration rate of the Internet in Hong Kong, it is imperative to examine the relationship between the new media and youth suicide. Study 1 investigated the role of the new media in youth suicide cases from 2014 to 2016. Study 2 reviewed existing social services (including youth mental health programmes) and their utilisation of the new media. The results revealed that a substantial number of the youths who committed suicide displayed warnings signs on the new media before doing so and that there was a critical lack of social services’ presence on the new media. The findings of our studies suggest a need for new intervention programmes, the nature of which we discuss; and we call for the expansion of online social services to meet the counselling needs of youths in Hong Kong.
Keywords: Youth; Suicide; New media; Social media; Warning signs

Professional Exchange

Current Situation and Services for Socially withdrawn Young People - Tim M.H.LI Paul W.C.WONG
Tim M. H. LI
Postdoctoral Fellow , Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, PolyU

Paul W. C. WONG
Associate Professor , The Department of Social Work and Social Administration, HKU

【Abstract】This paper presents the current situation of youth social withdrawal in Hong Kong and other places. Our previous study found that the prevalence rate of young people’s social withdrawal behavior is about 2%. Evidence-based services for this emerging youth behavior is very limited. Based on our recent systematic review, we found that there are three types of withdrawn young people who face difficulties at the family, school, and community levels, and they need different types of help. In this paper, we will also suggest ways to improve the situation with the assistance of Information and Communication Technology.

Keywords: Hong Kong; Social Withdrawal Behavior; Youth; Social Work Practice
Spiritual Health, School Engagement and Civic Engagement of Secondary Students in Hong Kong - Celeste Y. M. YUEN Alan C. K. CHEUNG Timothy W. W. YUEN
Celeste Y. M. YUEN
Associate Professor, Department of Education Policy and Leadership, The Education University of Hong Kong

Professor, Department of Educational Administration & Policy, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Timothy W. W. YUEN
Assistant Professor, Department of Education Policy and Leadership, The Education University of Hong Kong

【Abstract】This article investigates the relationships among spiritual health, school engagement and civic engagement of secondary students in Hong Kong. More than 15,000 secondary students were surveyed. The findings of the study revealed that spiritual health links positively with school engagement and civic engagement. The findings showed that non-Chinese speaking students rated higher than their Chinese counterparts across the three assessed domains. Likewise, girls and junior secondary students consistently ascribed higher scores than their counterparts in the respective domains.

Keywords: Spiritual health; School engagement; Civic engagement; Non-Chinese speaking secondary students; Chinese secondary students
The Role of International Service Learning in Leadership Development among Students in Higher Education - Min YANG Yun Yung LUK
Department of Curriculum and Instruction, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PRC

Yun Yung LUK
Centre for the Enhancement of Teaching and Learning, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PRC

【Abstract】This paper examines how undergraduate students’ leadership development may be facilitated in international service-learning (ISL) programs. Student leadership is defined as a relational process whereby students collaborate to effect change for the common good. ISL is organized social services engaged by students in overseas communities to address social problems faced by members of disadvantaged social groups, and to develop students’ competencies, such as leadership, intercultural understanding, and problem-solving. The study examined the questions: What were student leaders’ characteristics? How did student leaders’ characteristics influence the ways students’ negotiated leader-member relationships in ISL teams? How did leader-member relationships influence students’ perceived service quality and leadership development? Findings from interviews with students joining two ISL projects in Ghana and Thailand suggest that reciprocal leadership emphasizing all students’ leadership potential may be more productive in cultivating students’ leadership compared with locating leadership responsibilities solely to positional student leaders in ISL. By highlighting productive leadership characteristics identified from ISL projects, this paper offers practical recommendations on how to promote student leadership development in higher education.

Keywords: International; Service-Learning; Undergraduate Students; Student Leadership; Leadership Style; Leader-Member Relationship
Developing Creativity and Cultural and Social Awareness in General Education: A Case Study of Higher Education in Hong Kong - Wai Chung HO
Wai Chung HO
Professor, Department of Music, Hong Kong Baptist University

【Abstract】This paper presents a study on the approaches to learning that were used in a liberal arts course titled “Music, Society, and Culture” in a general education program in a Hong Kong higher education setting. The study aimed to examine the ways in which liberal arts education can be realized from two perspectives: (i) Chinese university students’ perceptions of their group activities in music and the creative arts and (ii) the possible challenges to realizing creativity and cultural and social awareness in education practices. The findings were based on a simple survey questionnaire administered to elicit information on the students’ backgrounds and the creative music and arts projects they carried out in the classroom. The results of the study suggest that in higher education there is potential value in viewing creativity and social and cultural awareness as issues or themes to be considered in curricula that could have an impact on students.

Keywords: creativity; cultural and social awareness; liberal arts education; general education; higher education
Vocational Education: An Instrument of Self Reliance for The Nigerian Youths in a Depressed Economy - B.ABIODUN W.L.AKINTAYO
Department of Creative Arts, Tai Solarin University of Education

Department of Home Economics, Tai Solarin University of Education

【Abstract】Young people desire material well-being and want to engage in expensive leisure pursuits, but are reluctant to work for either. Owing to the fragility of Nigeria’s economy following the oil boom, the position of Nigerian youths has become very difficult. It has become necessary to provide youths an adequate vocational education in order to address the problem. This paper discusses the nature of the plight facing the youth of today. The formal and informal vocational education chiefly provided by families and schools, respectively, determine youths’ prospects. The paper discusses the need for families – and/or certain formal and informal institutions – to determinedly promote vocational education with the purpose of ensuring the long-term well-being and economic self-reliance of Nigerian youths.

Keywords: Youths, Vocational Education, Nigerian economy